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Muhammad b. Jumhur al-'Ammi

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Companion of Imam (a)
Muhammad b. Jumhur al-'Ammi
Full Name Muhammad b. Jumhur al-'Ammi al-'Arabi al-Basri
Companion of Imam al-Rida (a)
Teknonym Abu 'Abd Allah
Well Known As Ibn Jumhur
Death/Martyrdom 210/825-6
Works Adab al-'ilmal-Risala al-dhahabiyyaSahib al-Zamanal-MalahimWaqt khuruj al-Qa'imal-Wahida fi al-akhbar wa l-manaqib wa l-mathalib
This article is about Ibn Jumhur. For Ibn Abi Jumhur, see Ibn Abi Jumhur al-Ahsa'i.

Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Jumhūr al-ʿAmmī al-ʿArabī al-Baṣrī (Arabic:ابوعبدالله محمد بن جمهور العمي العربي البصري) (d. 210/825-6) known as Ibn Jumhur (إبن جمهور) was among Shi'a scholars of hadiths and literature and among special companions of Imam al-Rida (a) who has narrated hadiths from him. Some accused him of having corrupt belief and extremism. Some of his works are available.

Life

Biographers have mentioned his teknonym and the names of father and grandfather with some differences. Ibn al-Nadim[1] mentioned his name as Muhammad b. Husayn b. Jumhur al-'Ammi and al-Najashi[2] has mentioned his name as Muhammad b. Jumhur al-'Ammi. Al-Tusi has mentioned his name as Muhammad b. Jumhur al-'Ammi al-'Arabi al-Basri[3] and also Muhammad b. Hasan b. Jumhur al-'Ammi al-Basri.[4] He also mentioned[5] that these names refer to one person and that he was from Banu 'Amm, a subtribe of the Tamim. Ibn Jumhur lived 110 years, but the date of his birth is not known.[6]

He was certainly among the special companions of Imam al-Rida (a) and narrated from him.[7]

Teachers and Sources

Ibn Jumhur narrated from:

Mu'alla b. Muhammad, Ali b. Muhammad, Husayn b. Muhammad al-Ash'ari, Ahmad b. Husayn b. Sa'id, Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Kufi, Abu Yahya Ahwazi, Ya'qub b. Yazid, 'Amraki b. 'Ali and others narrated hadiths from him.[9]

Corruption of Beliefs and Weakness of Hadith

Ibn Jumhur has been called extremist and weak in hadith and faith.[10] Also, al-Tusi mentioned him among those who have not narrated hadiths from the Infallible (a).

In Kamil al-Ziyarat, Ibn Qulawayh has narrated Ziyarah 'Ashura after two transmitters (Husayn b. Muhammad b. 'Amir and Mu'alla b. Muhammad) from him.[11] Yaqut has described him with some verses which suggest his participation in parties and vain gatherings.[12]

Ibn Dawud al-Hilli has seen a poem from Ibn Jumhur in which he considered the forbidden in religion permissible.[13]

Works

His works have been mentioned as below:

  • Adab al-'ilm
  • Al-Risala al-dhahabiyya also called Tibb al-Rida (a).
  • Sahib al-Zaman
  • Al-Malahim (al-Malahim al-kabir)
  • Waqt khuruj al-Qa'im
  • Al-Wahida fi al-akhbar wa l-manaqib wa l-mathalib[14]

Notes

  1. Ibn al-Nadīm, al-Fihrist, p. 278.
  2. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 337.
  3. Ṭūsī, al-Fihrist, p. 387.
  4. Ṭūsī, al-Fihrist, p. 284.
  5. Ṭūsī, al-Fihrist, p. 387; Ṭūsī, Ikhtiyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 416.
  6. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 337.
  7. Ibn al-Nadīm, al-Fihrist, p. 278; Ṭūsī, al-Fihrist, p. 387.
  8. Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 15, p. 180.
  9. Kulaynī, al-Uṣūl al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 62; vol. 4, p. 417; Ibn Qūlawayh, Kāmil al-zīyārāt, p. 174; Qummī, Tafsīr al-Qummī, vol. 2, p. 154; Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 337; Ṭūsī, al-Fihrist, p. 387; Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 512; Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, p. 295.
  10. Ṭūsī, al-Fihrist, p. 387; Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 337.
  11. Ibn Qūlawayh, Kāmil al-zīyārāt, p. 174.
  12. Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān, vol. 2, p. 688.
  13. Ibn Dāwūd al-Ḥillī, Kitāb al-rijāl, p. 502.
  14. Āgā Buzurg, al-Dharīʿa ilā taṣānīf al-shīʿa, vol. 1, p. 387; vol. 11, p. 224; vol. 1, p. 25, 134; vol. 22, p. 189; Baghdādī, Īḍāḥ al-maknūn, vol. 2, p. 348.

References

  • Āgā Buzurg al-Tihrānī, Muḥammad Muḥsin. Al-Dharīʿa ilā taṣānīf al-shīʿa. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Ḥamawī, Yāqūt b. ʿAbd Allāh al-. Muʿjam al-buldān. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Ibn Dāwūd al-Ḥillī, Ḥasan b. 'Alī. Kitāb al-rijāl. Edited by Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥaddith Armawī. Tehran: 1342 Sh.
  • Ibn Qūlawayh, Jaʿfar b. Muḥammad. Kāmil al-zīyārāt. Edited by ʿAbd al-Ḥusayn Amīnī. Najaf: 1356 Sh.
  • Ibn al-Nadīm, Muḥammad b. Isḥāq. Al-Fihrist. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Khoeī, Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim al-. Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth. Beirut: 1403 AH.
  • Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Uṣūl al-Kāfī. Translated to Farsi by Jawād Muṣṭafawī. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmiyya, [n.d].
  • Baghdādī, Ismāʿīl Pāshā. Īḍāḥ al-maknūn. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Najāshī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-. Rijāl al-Najāshī. Qom: 1407 AH.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Ikhtiyār maʿrifat al-rijāl. Edited by Ḥasan Muṣṭafawī. Mashhad: 1348 Sh.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Tahdhīb al-aḥkām. Edited by Sayyid Ḥasan al-Khursān. Beirut: 1401 AH.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥaasn al-. Al-Rijāl. Najaf: 1380 AH.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Al-Fihrist. Edited by Maḥmūd Rāmyār. Mashhad: 1351 Sh.
  • Qummī, ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm al-. Tafsīr al-Qummī. Edited by Ṭayyib Mūsawī Jazāʾrī. Najaf: 1387 AH.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Khiṣāl. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Qom: Jāmiʿat al-Mudarrisīn-i Ḥawza-yi ʿIlmiyya, [n.d].