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Asma' bt. Umays

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This article is about Asma' bt. 'Umays. For other people named Asma', see Asma' (disambiguation).
Sahaba
Asma' bt. Umays
مقام اسماء در باب الصغیر سوریه.jpg
the attributed tomb of Asma' bt. Umays in Bab al-Saghir Cemetery, Syria.
Personal Information
Lineage Banu Khath'am
Well-Known Relatives Ja'far b. Abi TalibAbu BakrImam Ali (a) (husbands) • Muhammad b. Abi Bakr (son)
Muhajir/Ansar Muhajir
Place(s) of Residence MeccaAbyssiniaMedina
Death/Martyrdom After 40/661
Religious Information
Migration to AbyssinaMedina
Notable Roles hadith transmission
Other Activities present in the nocturnal funeral of Lady Fatima (a)

Asmāʾ bt. ʿUmays (Arabic: أسماء بنت عُمَیس) , (b. ? - d. after 40/661), is one of the female companions of Prophet Muhammad (s). She embraced Islam along with her husband, Ja'far b. Abi Talib; so she was among the first Muslims. After the martyrdom of Ja'far in the Battle of Muta, she married Abu Bakr. When Abu Bakr died, She married Imam Ali (a). Asma' is the mother of Muhammad b. Abi Bakr.

Birth and Lineage

Her father, 'Umays b. Ma'd, was from the tribe of Khath'am and her mother was Hind bt. 'Awn b. Zuhayr al-Himyari.[1] There is no information about her birth date.

Islam and Immigration

She embraced Islam along with her husband, Ja'far b. Abi Talib;[2] so she was among the first Muslims. Seven years after Mab'ath, she immigrated to Abyssinia with her husband, Ja'far b. Abi Talib. She and other immigrants returned to Medina in 7/628-9. Her husband, Ja'far, was martyred in 8/629 in the Battle of Muta.

Then, she married Abu Bakr and she gave birth to Muhammad b. Abi Bakr in the year of farewell Hajj (10/632). During the Prophet's fatal illness, she was present at his bedside.[3]

After the death of Abu Bakr, She married Imam Ali (a). According to al-Kalbi,[4] she had two children from Imam Ali (a): Yahya and 'Awn.[5] Yahya died in his childhood.[6] There are disagreements about 'Awn. Some said that he has been mistaken for 'Awn b. Ja'far and mentioned Muhammad instead of 'Awn.[7]

Children

She gave birth to three children, called 'Abd Allah, Muhammad, and 'Awn, from her first husband,[8] Ja'far b. Abi Talib, while they were in Abyssinia.

She gave birth to Muhammad from her second husband, Abu Bakr. Then, she gave birth to Yahya and 'Awn from her third husband, Imam Ali (a).[9]

Demise

There is no record about the exact date of her demise. However, 38/658-59 and after 60/679 were mentioned in some sources.[10] In an account, it is only mentioned that she was alive after the martyrdom of Imam Ali (a) (40/661).[11]

Presence in Funeral of Lady Fatima (s)

One of the most important and salient points in her life was her relation with Imam Ali's (a) family. She was one of the few people who were allowed to be present in the nocturnal funeral of Lady Fatima (a).[12] It is even said that she was present in the wedding ceremony of Imam Ali (a) and Lady Fatima (a); however according to date of this wedding in 2/624 and her return from Abyssinia in 8/629 it is highly unlikely.[13]

Apparently, it was due to this close and honest relation with Imam Ali's (a) household that she was honored in Shi'a sources, as according to some hadiths she was praised by Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Sadiq (a).[14]

Narration

Asma' has narrated hadiths from the Prophet (s).[15] Narrators, such as her son, Abd Allah b. Ja'far, Sa'id b. Musayyib and 'Urwat b. Zubayr, have narrated hadiths form her.[16]

Al-Ya'qubi[17]20 mentioned that she had a book which contained hadiths of the Prophet (s). As she was very close to him and his household, this book is very important and valuable; however, because other sources did not mention anything about this book the authenticity and it ascription to her is highly doubted.[18]

See Also

Notes

  1. Ibn Kalbī, Nasab al-muʿid wa Yaman al-kabīr, vol. 1, p. 356, 358.
  2. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 346.
  3. Ibn Kalbī, Nasab al-muʿid wa Yaman al-kabīr, vol. 4, p. 300; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 545.
  4. Ibn Kalbī, Nasab al-muʿid wa Yaman al-kabīr, vol. 4, p. 300.
  5. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 280, 285; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 447.
  6. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 21.
  7. Ibn Qutayba, al-Maʿārif, p. 210; Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1785; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 154.
  8. Ibn Kalbī, Nasab al-muʿid wa Yaman al-kabīr, vol. 1, p. 358.
  9. Qummī, Muntahā al-āmāl, vol. 1, p. 298-299.
  10. Ṣafdī, al-Wāfī bi l-Wafīyāt, vol. 9, p. 53; Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 7, p. 331.
  11. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 2, p. 287; Ibn Ḥajar, Taqrīb al-tahdhīb, vol. 2, p. 589.
  12. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 405; Ḥākim al-Nayshābūrī, al-Mustadrak, vol. 3, p. 163-164.
  13. Ḥākim al-Nayshābūrī, al-Mustadrak, vol. 3, p. 159; Ganjī, Kifāyat al-ṭālib, p. 302-303; Irbilī, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 1, p. 365-367; Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 3, p. 307.
  14. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 63-64; Ṣadūq, al-Khiṣāl, vol. 2, p. 363.
  15. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 2, p. 766; Ḥamīdī, al-Musnad, vol. 1, p. 158; Mizzī, Tuḥfat al-ashrāf, vol. 11, p. 259-263.
  16. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 2, p. 287.
  17. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 101.
  18. Encyclopedia of Islam.

References

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  • ʿĀmilī, Muḥammad b. Ḥasan. Ithbāt al-hudāt bi l-nuṣūṣ wa al-muʿjizāt. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī, 1425 AH.
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