Asma' bt. Umays
- This article is about Asma' bt. 'Umays. For other people named Asma', see Asma' (disambiguation).
|Asma' bt. Umays|
the attributed tomb of Asma' bt. Umays in Bab al-Saghir Cemetery, Syria.
|Well-Known Relatives||Ja'far b. Abi Talib • Abu Bakr • Imam Ali (a) (husbands) • Muhammad b. Abi Bakr (son)|
|Place(s) of Residence||Mecca • Abyssinia • Medina|
|Migration to||Abyssina • Medina|
|Notable Roles||hadith transmission|
|Other Activities||present in the nocturnal funeral of Lady Fatima (a)|
Asmāʾ bt. ʿUmays (Arabic: أسماء بنت عُمَیس) , (b. ? - d. after 40/661), is one of the female companions of Prophet Muhammad (s). She embraced Islam along with her husband, Ja'far b. Abi Talib; so she was among the first Muslims. After the martyrdom of Ja'far in the Battle of Muta, she married Abu Bakr. When Abu Bakr died, She married Imam Ali (a). Asma' is the mother of Muhammad b. Abi Bakr.
Birth and Lineage
Islam and Immigration
She embraced Islam along with her husband, Ja'far b. Abi Talib; so she was among the first Muslims. Seven years after Mab'ath, she immigrated to Abyssinia with her husband, Ja'far b. Abi Talib. She and other immigrants returned to Medina in 7/628-9. Her husband, Ja'far, was martyred in 8/629 in the Battle of Muta.
After the death of Abu Bakr, She married Imam Ali (a). According to al-Kalbi, she had two children from Imam Ali (a): Yahya and 'Awn. Yahya died in his childhood. There are disagreements about 'Awn. Some said that he has been mistaken for 'Awn b. Ja'far and mentioned Muhammad instead of 'Awn.
There is no record about the exact date of her demise. However, 38/658-59 and after 60/679 were mentioned in some sources. In an account, it is only mentioned that she was alive after the martyrdom of Imam Ali (a) (40/661).
Presence in Funeral of Lady Fatima (s)
One of the most important and salient points in her life was her relation with Imam Ali's (a) family. She was one of the few people who were allowed to be present in the nocturnal funeral of Lady Fatima (a). It is even said that she was present in the wedding ceremony of Imam Ali (a) and Lady Fatima (a); however according to date of this wedding in 2/624 and her return from Abyssinia in 8/629 it is highly unlikely.
Apparently, it was due to this close and honest relation with Imam Ali's (a) household that she was honored in Shi'a sources, as according to some hadiths she was praised by Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Sadiq (a).
Al-Ya'qubi20 mentioned that she had a book which contained hadiths of the Prophet (s). As she was very close to him and his household, this book is very important and valuable; however, because other sources did not mention anything about this book the authenticity and it ascription to her is highly doubted.
- Ibn Kalbī, Nasab al-muʿid wa Yaman al-kabīr, vol. 1, p. 356, 358.
- Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 346.
- Ibn Kalbī, Nasab al-muʿid wa Yaman al-kabīr, vol. 4, p. 300; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 545.
- Ibn Kalbī, Nasab al-muʿid wa Yaman al-kabīr, vol. 4, p. 300.
- Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 280, 285; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 447.
- Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 21.
- Ibn Qutayba, al-Maʿārif, p. 210; Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1785; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 154.
- Ibn Kalbī, Nasab al-muʿid wa Yaman al-kabīr, vol. 1, p. 358.
- Qummī, Muntahā al-āmāl, vol. 1, p. 298-299.
- Ṣafdī, al-Wāfī bi l-Wafīyāt, vol. 9, p. 53; Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 7, p. 331.
- Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 2, p. 287; Ibn Ḥajar, Taqrīb al-tahdhīb, vol. 2, p. 589.
- Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 405; Ḥākim al-Nayshābūrī, al-Mustadrak, vol. 3, p. 163-164.
- Ḥākim al-Nayshābūrī, al-Mustadrak, vol. 3, p. 159; Ganjī, Kifāyat al-ṭālib, p. 302-303; Irbilī, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 1, p. 365-367; Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 3, p. 307.
- Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 63-64; Ṣadūq, al-Khiṣāl, vol. 2, p. 363.
- Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 2, p. 766; Ḥamīdī, al-Musnad, vol. 1, p. 158; Mizzī, Tuḥfat al-ashrāf, vol. 11, p. 259-263.
- Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 2, p. 287.
- Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 101.
- Encyclopedia of Islam.
- Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn. Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn. Edited by Sayyid Aḥmad al-Ṣaqar. [n.p]. 1959 CE.
- ʿĀmilī, Muḥammad b. Ḥasan. Ithbāt al-hudāt bi l-nuṣūṣ wa al-muʿjizāt. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī, 1425 AH.
- Amīn, al-Sayyid Muḥsin al-. Aʿyān al-Shīʿa. Edited by Ḥasan Amīn. Beirut: Dār al-Tʿāruf li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1403 AH.
- Balādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Ansāb al-ashrāf. Edited by Muḥammad Ḥamīd Allāh. Cairo: 1959.
- Dhahabī, Muḥammad b. al-Aḥmad al-. Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ. Edited by Shuʿayb al-Arnaʾūt. Beirut: 1404 AH.
- Encyclopedia of Islam. New Edition. Leiden, 1956
- Ḥākim al-Nayshābūrī. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-. Al-Mustadrak ʿala l-ṣaḥīḥayn. Hyderabad Deccan: 1341 AH.
- Ḥamīdī, ʿAbd Allāh. Al-Musnad. Edited by Ḥabīb al-Raḥman Aʿzamī. Hyderabad Deccan: 1380-1382 AH.
- Ibn Isḥāq, Muḥammad. Al-Sīyar wa al-maghāzī. Edited by Suhayl Zukār. 1st edition. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1978.
- Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī. Taqrīb al-tahdhīb. Edited by ʿAbd al-Wahhāb ʿAbd al-Laṭīf. Beirut: 1395 AH.
- Ibn Saʿd, Muḥammad. Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, [n.d].
- Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd Allāh. Al-Istīʿāb fī maʿrifat al-aṣḥāb. Edited by ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Bajāwī. Beirut: Dār al-Jail, 1412 AH.
- Ibn Kalbī, Hisham b. Muḥammad. Nasab al-muʿid wa Yaman al-kabīr. Edited by Ḥasan Nājī. Beirut: ʿĀlam al-Kutub, 1408 AH.
- Irbilī, ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā al-. Kashf al-ghumma fī maʿrifat al-aʾimma. Tabriz: 1381 AH.
- Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd Allāh. Al-Istīʿāb fī maʿrifat al-aṣḥāb. Edited by ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Bajāwī. Cairo: 1380 AH.
- Ibn Qutayba al-Dīnawarī, ʿAbd Allāh b. Muslim . Al-Maʿārif. Edited by Tharwat ʿAkkāsha. Cairo: 1388 AH/1969 CE.
- Ibn Hishām, ʿAbd al-Malik. Al-Sīra al-nabawīyya. Edited by Muṣṭafā al-Saqā. Cairo: 1355 AH/1936.
- Ganjī al-Shāfiʿī, Muḥammad b. Yūsuf al-. Kifāyat al-ṭālib. Edited by Muḥammad Hādī Amīnī. Tehran: 1404 AH.
- Kashshī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl known as Rijāl al-Kashshī. Edited by Ḥasan Muṣṭafawī. Mashhad: 1348 Sh.
- Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Beirut: Muʾassisa al-Wafaʾ, 1403 AH.
- Mizzī, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-. Tuḥfat al-ashrāf. Mumbai: 1400 AH.
- Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Khiṣāl. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Qom: 1362 Sh.
- Ṣafdī, Khalīl b. Ībak. Al-Wāfī bi l-Wafīyāt. Edited by Fānās. Beirut: 1401 AH/1981.
- Qummī, Shaykh ʿAbbās. Muntahā al-āmāl. Aʿlām al-Tuqā, Summer 1382 Sh. [n.p].
- Wāqidī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Al-Maghāzī. Edited by Marsden Jones. London: 1996 CE.
- Yaʿqūbī, Aḥmad b. Abī Yaʿqūb al-. Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī. Beirut: Dār Ṣādir, [n.p].