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Qur'an 19:96

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Verse's Information
Name Verse of Wudd
Sura Qur'an 19
Verse 96
Juz' 16
Content Information
Cause of
Revelation
Prophet (s) asked God to appoint love for Imam Ali (a) in the hearts of believers
Place of
Revelation
Medina
About Love of believers

Verse of wudd or verse of love (Arabic: آیة الوُدّ) is verse ninety six of the Qur'an 19, according to which God will appoint love for believers in the hearts of others. Some Shi'a and Sunni exegetes considered the occasion of revelation for this verse about Imam Ali (a). Based on some hadiths, the noble Prophet (s) asked God to appoint love for Imam Ali (a) in the hearts of believers and his awe and impression in the hearts of the hypocrites. Then, the verse of Wudd was revealed.

Regarding the interpretation of this verse, a number of exegetes believe that God appoints the love of believers in the hearts of the people of faith or the enemies and hypocrites and it may be in this world or in the hereafter. Some consider all different interpretations of this verse possible to be true due to lack of specification in this verse, saying that undoubtedly its supreme and excellent level was revealed about Imam Ali (a) and God appointed the love for Imam Ali (a) in the hearts of believers, in lower levels it may include all believers and righteous ones and even their progeny in later times.

Texts and Translation

General Introduction

The verse ninety six of the Qur'an 19 is called the verse of wudd. The word "wudd" means "love" like the love of a father toward his child[1] and in this verse, a promise God gives that soon He will appoint love for believers and those who do good actions in the hearts of others;[2] because, when God loves someone, He will spread the love for him in the hearts of all the dwellers of the skies and the earth.[3]

Occasion of Revelation

The occasion of revelation for this verse is considered in relation with Imam Ali (a)[4] and wilaya[5] regarding which many hadiths are mentioned in both Shi'a and Sunni sources.[6] Some researchers have considered mentioning Imam Ali (a) in sources an example and considered the verse referring to the wilaya of all Imams (a).[7] Ali b. Ibrahim al-Qummi and al-Ayyashi, two of the early Shi'a scholars have mentioned in their commentaries of the Qur'an, a hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that the Prophet (s) began praying for Imam Ali (a) loudly so that people could hear[8] and asked God to appoint love for him in the hearts of believers and his awe and impression in the hearts of hypocrites. After this prayer, the mentioned verse was revealed.[9]

Some Sunni scholars, too, considered the occasion of revelation for this verse about Imam Ali (a).[10] It is mentioned in hadiths transmitted by Sunnis that the Prophet (s) taught Ali (a) the content of this supplication and then this verse was revealed;[11] however, some others considered this verse about the Migration to Abyssinia[12] or Abd al-Rahman b. Awf.[13]

Interpretation

There is a disagreement about the interpretation of this verse[14] which is, in fact, the gist of its previous verses in addition to some new points.[15] Al-Tabrisi, the Shi'a exegete and the author of Majma' al-bayan believes that some exegetes have considered this law applying to all believers and God will attract the hearts of people[16] or people of faith[17] toward them so that in some manners, their virtues and merits are appreciated.[18] Some others believe that the verse refers to appointing the love of believers in the hearts of the enemies;[19] while, it is also interpreted as the love of believers toward each other which leads to their unity and power.[20] In relation to the place of love, some have considered it this world[21] and some others have considered the hereafter.[22]

Allama Tabataba'i believes that all these interpretations can be true due to lack of specification in the verse and they have no conflict with each other.[23] Therefore, the view that the verse is revealed about Imam Ali (a) and God appointed his love in the hearts of believers[24] is undoubtedly the supreme and excellent level of that and in lower levels, it includes all believers and righteous people and even their progeny and later times as well.[25]

Inferences from the Verse

There are different inferences from the verse of wudd in exegetical sources. Some of them are as follows:

  • Faith and good action are the key of being loved by people and the promise of God is definite.[26]
  • General meaning of the message in this verse includes all believers.[27]
  • Being loved is in the hand of God and it is a divine mercy which includes believers and righteous ones.[28]
  • Faith without action and action without faith are not effective.[29]

Notes

  1. Jaṣṣāṣ, Aḥkām al-Qurʾān, vol. 5, p. 48.
  2. Ṭabāṭabāʾī, al-Mīzān, vol. 14, p. 113.
  3. Ṭūsī, al-Tibyān, vol. 7, p. 154.
  4. Abū Ḥamza al-Thumālī, Tafsīr al-Qur'ān al-karīm, p.243; Jaʿfarī, Tafsīr al-kawthar, vol. 6, p. 548.
  5. Ḥuwayzī, Tafsīr nūr al-thaqalayn, vol. 3, p. 363.
  6. Furāt al-Kūfī, Tafsīr furāt al-kūfī, p. 248; Ḥaskānī, Shawāhid al-tanzīl,vol. 1, p. 464; Jurjānī, Darj al-durar, vol. 2, p. 283; Fayḍ al-Kāshānī, Tafsīr al-Ṣāfī, vol. 3, p. 297; Burūjirdī, Tafsīr-i Jāmi, vol. 4, p. 272.
  7. Shakūrī, Tafsīr Sharīf lahījī, vol. 3, p. 45.
  8. ʿAyyāshī, Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshī, vol. 2, p. 142.
  9. Qummī, Tafsīr al-Qummī, vol. 2, p. 56.
  10. Wāḥidī, al-Wajīz fī tafsīr al-kitāb al-ʿazīz, vol. 2, p. 690; Ḥaskānī, Shawāhid al-tanzīl, vol. 1, p. 464; Māturīdī, Tafsīr-i māturīdī, vol. 7, p. 263; Ṭabarānī, Tafsīr al-kabīr, vol. 4, p. 227; Jurjānī, Darj al-durar, vol. 2, p. 283.
  11. Riḍāʾī Iṣfahānī, Tafsīr-i Qurʾān-i mihr, vol. 12, p. 392; Ṭabrisī, Tafsīr-i jawāmiʾ al-jāmiʾ, vol. 2, p. 411.
  12. Ālūsī, Rūḥ al-maʿānī, vol. 8, p. 458.
  13. Wāḥidī, al-Wajīz fī tafsīr al-kitāb al-ʿazīz, vol. 2, p. 690.
  14. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 13, p. 144.
  15. ʿĀmilī, Tafsīr ʿĀmilī, p. 85.
  16. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 6, p. 822; Ibn Qutayba, Tafsīr gharīb al-Qurʾān, p. 234.
  17. Ibn Hāʾim, al-Tibyān fī tafsīr gharīb al-Qurʾān, p. 225; Ṭabarī, Jāmiʾ al-bayān, vol. 16, p. 100.
  18. Mughnīya, Tafsīr al-Kāshif, vol. 5, p. 201.
  19. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 6, p. 822.
  20. Riḍāʾī Iṣfahānī, Tafsīr-i Qurʾān-i mihr, vol. 12, p. 393; Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 13, p. 144.
  21. Ṭabarānī, Tafsīr al-kabīr, vol. 4, p. 227; Ṭabarī, Jāmiʾ al-bayān, vol. 16, p. 100.
  22. Māturīdī, Tafsīr-i māturīdī, vol. 7, p. 263; Maybudī, Kashf al-asrār, vol. 6, p. 84.
  23. Ṭabāṭabāʾī, al-Mīzān, vol. 14, p. 113.
  24. Jaʿfarī, Tafsīr al-kawthar, vol. 6, p. 548.
  25. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 13, p. 144-145
  26. Qirāʾatī, Tafsīr-i nūr, vol. 5, p. 314.
  27. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 6, p. 822; Ibn Qutayba, Tafsīr gharīb al-Qurʾān, p. 234; Ibn Hāʾim, al-Tibyān, p. 225; Ṭabarī, Jāmiʾ al-bayān, vol. 16, p. 100.
  28. Qirāʾatī, Tafsīr-i nūr, vol. 5, p. 314.
  29. Qirāʾatī, Tafsīr-i nūr, vol. 5, p. 314.

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