Qur'an 16:101

Priority: b, Quality: b
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Verse of Substitution
Quran Aya Tabdil.jpg
Verse's Information
Name Al-Tabdil Verse
Sura Qur'an 16
Verse 101
Juz' 14
Content Information
Cause of
Revelation
The substitution of a harder ruling with an easier one
Place of
Revelation
Medina
Topic Belief
About Abrogation
Related Verses Qur'an 2:106

Al-Tabdīl Verse, (Arabic: آیة التبدیل) or the Verse of Substitution, is verse 101 of Qur'an 16 concerning the substitution of an initial ruling in a Quranic verse with another ruling. Such substitution is called "naskh" (abrogation). The verse was revealed to the Prophet (s) when polytheists said that Muhammad (s) was messing with his companions, since he commanded them to do one thing one day, and the next day he prohibited them from doing it and then commanded them to do something easier. They claimed that such substitutions were evidence that Muhammad (s) did not talk on behalf of God.

Text and Translation

Occasion of Revelation

Some commands were revealed by God and were then substituted by other commands, such as commands to peace which were replaced by commands to wars after a short while.[1] Polytheists said that Muhammad was messing with his companions, since he commanded them to do one thing one day, and the next day he prohibited them from doing it and then commanded them to do something easier. They claimed that such substitutions were evidence that Muhammad did not talk on behalf of God, and this was all a lie he fabricated. After these remarks, the verse was revealed.[2]

Meanings of Words

  • "Baddalna" (بَدَّلْنَا) means substitution. In this verse, substitution means abrogation (naskh); that is, a ruling is revealed which was in the interest of people, but it later ceased to be in their interest, and was thus abrogated.[3]
  • "Aya": (آیةً) this word is used to mean a remark. Here it refers to divine words or revelations.[4]
  • "Muftar": (مُفْتَرٍ, in subject form) a person who fabricates lies.[5]

Implication of Abrogation

The occasion of the revelation of the verse concerns the substitution of a harder ruling with an easier one. Thus, the verse is concerned with abrogation (naskh) of a ruling by another.[6] There are two reasons why the verse implies the occurrence of abrogation:

  • The verse was revealed to reject the views of those who insulted Islam and the Prophet (s) because of abrogation. Thus, there were cases of abrogation because of which they insulted the Prophet (s).
  • The verse implies the occurrence of abrogation, because the substitution of a verse is to put aside a ruling and replace it with another ruling, which is abrogation.[7]

Notes

  1. Ḥusaynī Hamadānī, Anwār dirakhshān, vol. 9, p. 541.
  2. Islāmī, Shaʾn-i nuzūl, p. 355.
  3. Ṭabrisī, Tafsīr-i jawāmiʾ al-jāmiʾ, vol. 2, p. 307.
  4. Ṭabāṭabāʾī, al-Mīzān, vol. 10, p. 7.
  5. Qurashī, Qāmūs-i Qurān, vol. 5, p. 172.
  6. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 11, p. 405.
  7. Farhangnāma-yi ʿulūm-i Qurʾān, vol. 1, p. 41-48.

References

  • Ḥusaynī Hamadānī, Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥusayn. Anwār dirakhshān. Edited by Muḥammad Bāqir Bihbūdī. Tehran: Kitābfurūshī-yi Luṭfī, 1404 AH.
  • Islāmī, Muḥammad Jaʿfar. Shaʾn-i nuzūl. Tehran: 1371 Sh.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūna. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1374 Sh.
  • Qurashī Bunābī, Sayyid ʿAlī Akbar. Qāmūs-i Qurān. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1371 Sh.
  • Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥusayn al-. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī-yi Jāmiʿa-yi Mudarrisīn, 1417 AH.
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Tafsīr-i jawāmiʾ al-jāmiʾ. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Dānishgāh-i Tehrān wa Mudīrīyat Ḥawza-yi Ilmīya-yi Qom, 1377 Sh.