|About||Obligation of women to wear Hijab|
Verse of Ḥijāb (Arabic: آيَة الحِجاب) talks about the obligation of women to wear hijab. This verse is one of the Qur'anic arguments of the jurists for the obligation of hijab. Also, some jurists based on the phrase "beyond what is [acceptably] visible" in this verse, said that it is not obligatory for a woman to cover her face and hands from the wrist down.
Text and Translation
وَقُل لِلمُؤمِناتِ يَغضُضنَ مِن أَبصارِهِنَّ وَيَحفَظنَ فُروجَهُنَّ وَلا يُبدينَ زينَتَهُنَّ إِلّا ما ظَهَرَ مِنها ۖ وَليَضرِبنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلىٰ جُيوبِهِنَّ ۖ وَلا يُبدينَ زينَتَهُنَّ إِلّا لِبُعولَتِهِنَّ أَو آبائِهِنَّ أَو آباءِ بُعولَتِهِنَّ أَو أَبنائِهِنَّ أَو أَبناءِ بُعولَتِهِنَّ أَو إِخوانِهِنَّ أَو بَني إِخوانِهِنَّ أَو بَني أَخَواتِهِنَّ أَو نِسائِهِنَّ أَو ما مَلَكَت أَيمانُهُنَّ أَوِ التّابِعينَ غَيرِ أُولِي الإِربَةِ مِنَ الرِّجالِ أَوِ الطِّفلِ الَّذينَ لَم يَظهَروا عَلىٰ عَوراتِ النِّساءِ ۖ وَلا يَضرِبنَ بِأَرجُلِهِنَّ لِيُعلَمَ ما يُخفينَ مِن زينَتِهِنَّ ۚ وَتوبوا إِلَى اللَّهِ جَميعًا أَيُّهَ المُؤمِنونَ لَعَلَّكُم تُفلِحونَ
And tell the faithful women to cast down their looks and to guard their private parts, and not to display their charms, except for what is outward, and let them draw their scarfs over their bosoms, and not display their charms except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband’s fathers, or their sons, or their husband’s sons, or their brothers, or their brother’s sons, or their sister’s sons, or their women, or their slave girls, or male dependants lacking [sexual] desire, or children uninitiated to women’s parts. And let them not thump their feet to make known their hidden ornaments. Rally to Allah in repentance, O faithful, so that you may be felicitous.
|— Quran 24:31|
Application in Jurisprudence
In the books of jurisprudence, this verse is mentioned as the reference to explain the obligation of women to wear hijab and some of its rulings, including the limits of hijab. According to jurists, the phrase "and not display their charms" indicates the obligation of hijab for women. Also, according to some Shi'a jurists, such as al-Shaykh al-Ansari, al-Shahid al-Thani and al-'Allama al-Hilli, the phrase "beyond what is [acceptably] visible" excludes the face and hands (from the wrists down) from the obligation to cover.
Occasion of Revelation
Regarding the story of the revelation of this verse, it has been narrated from Jabir b. Abd Allah al-Ansari that one day, a group of women went to Asma', daughter of Murshida who did not have proper covering, in such a way that their anklets, necks, and breast projection were visible. He became upset by this act and criticized them. Then, the verse of hijab was revealed. Al-Tabrisi, the exegete of the Qur'an, has also written in this regard that before the revelation of this verse, women used to wear headscarf in such a way that its tail fell behind them, and therefore their necks and chests were visible.
According to exegetes, the meaning of not displaying the charms in the phrase "and not display their charms" is not showing the parts of the body that are usually adorned [such as the ears and the neck], not showing the ornaments alone; because it is not forbidden to show jewelry alone like earrings. "Khumur" is the plural of "khimar", which means a cover with which women cover their heads. In the phrase "and let them draw their scarfs over their bosoms", it is ordered that women put headscarves on their chests so that their hair, ears, and necks are not visible.
Covering with Jilbab
Qur'an 33:59 also talks about hijab, which is known as the verse of jilbab. In this verse, women are asked to cover themselves with jilbab. Lexicographers have interpreted jilbab as a garment larger than a scarf and smaller than a rida' (overcoat, robe) that women put on their heads and cover their chests.
- See: Dāʾirat al-maʿārif-i Qurʾān-i karīm, vol. 1, p. 381; Group of Authors, Farhangnāma-yi ʿulūm-i Qurʾānī, p. 129.
- Saʿīdī, Ḥijāb, p. 604.
- See: Khoeī, Mawsūʿat al-Imām al-Khūʾī, vol. 32, p. 36-47; Ḥillī, Tadhkirat al-fuqahāʾ, vol. 2, p. 446-447.
- Khoeī, Mawsūʿat al-Imām al-Khūʾī, vol. 32, p. 36.
- Anṣārī, Kitāb al-nikāḥ, p. 46-47; Shahīd al-Thānī, Masālik, vol. 7, p. 47; Ḥillī, Tadhkirat al-fuqahāʾ, vol. 2, p. 446-447.
- Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, Tafsīr al-Qurʾān al-ʿaẓīm, vol. 8, p. 2573.
- Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 7, p. 217.
- Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 7, p. 217; Ṭabāṭabāʾī, al-Mīzān, vol. 15, p. 111.
- Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 7, p. 217; Ṭabāṭabāʾī, al-Mīzān, vol. 15, p. 112.
- Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 7, p. 217.
- Group of Authors, Farhangnāma-yi ʿulūm-i Qurʾānī, p. 126.
- Ṭabāṭabāʾī, al-Mīzān, vol. 16, p. 339; Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 8, p. 581.
- Ṭurayḥī, Majmaʿ al-baḥrayn, vol. 2, p. 24.
- A group of authors. Farhangnāma-yi ʿulūm-i Qurʾānī. Qom: Pazhūhishgāh-i ʿUlūm wa Farhang Islāmī, 1394 Sh.
- Anṣārī, Murtaḍā. Kitāb al-nikāḥ. Qom: Kungira-yi Jahānī Buzurgdāsht-i Sheikh Aʿzam Anṣārī, 1415 AH.
- Ḥillī, al-Ḥasan b. Yūsuf al-. Tadhkirat al-fuqahāʾ. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt, 1414 AH.
- Ḥuwayzī, ʿAbd ʿAlī b. al-Jumʿa al-. Tafsīr nūr al-thaqalayn. Qom: ʿIsmā'ilīyān, 1415 AH.
- Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Tafṣīl wasāʾil al-Shīʿa ilā taḥṣīl masā'il al-sharī'a. 1st Edition. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt, 1416 AH.
- Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad. Tafsīr al-Qurʾān al-ʿaẓīm. Edited by Asʿad Muḥammad al-Ṭayyib. Third edition. Riyadh: Maktabat Nazār Muṣṭafā al-Bāz, 1419 AH.
- Khoeī, Sayyid Abū l-Qāsim al-. Mawsūʿat al-Imām al-Khūʾī. First edition. Qom: Muʾassisa Ihyāʾ Āthar al-Imām al-Khūʾī, 1418 AH.
- Shahīd al-Thānī, Zayn al-Dīn b. ʿAlī. Masālik al-ifhām ilā tanqīh sharāyiʿ al-Islām. 1st edition. Qom: Muʾassisat al-Maʿārif al-Islāmīyya, 1413 AH.
- Markaz-i farhang wa maʿārif-i Qurʾān. Dāʾirat al-maʿārif-i Qurʾān-i karīm. Qom: Būstān-i Kitāb, 1382 Sh.
- Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥusayn al-. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1417 AH.
- Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Majmaʿ al-bayān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Edited by Muḥammad Jawād Balāghī. 3rd edition. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Nāṣir Khusraw, 1372 Sh.
- Ṭurayḥī, Fakhr al-Dīn b. Muḥammad al-. Majmaʿ al-baḥrayn. Edited by Sayyid Aḥmad Ḥusaynī. Tehran: al-Maktaba al-Murtaḍawīyya, 1375 Sh.