Jawahir al-iqdayn fi fadl al-sharafayn (book)
|Jawahir al-'iqdayn fi fadl al-sharafayn|
|Author||'Ali b. 'Abd Allah al-Samhudi|
|Original title||جَواهرُ العِقْدین فی فَضل الشَّرَفَیْن|
|Subject||Excellence of Ahl al-Bayt (a)|
Jawāhir al-'iqdayn fī faḍl al-sharafayn (Arabic: جَواهرُ العِقْدین فی فَضل الشَّرَفَیْن) is an Arabic book written by 'Ali b. 'Abd Allah al-Samhudi (d. 844/1440-41), a Sunni scholar. The book is concerned with the honor of knowledge and the dignity of the Prophet's (s) lineage and his household and progeny. The book is based on hadiths, and it cites mostly Sunni sources. Some Shiite scholars cited Jawahir al-'iqdayn in their works.
- Main article: 'Ali b. 'Abd Allah al-Samhudi
Nur al-Din Ali b. 'Abd Allah al-Samhudi was a Shafi'i scholar whose lineage goes back to Imam Ali (a). He was born in 844/1440-41 in Samhud, a village near the Nile river. He studied in Cairo and then Mecca. In 873/1468-69, he went to Medina and became a mufti (issuer of fatwa) there. He also counts as a well-known historian of Medina. He had some works, the most well-known among them is Wafa' al-wafa' bi ikhbar al-Mustafa.
In Jawahir al-'iqdayn, al-Samhudi is concerned with two independent issues: the honor of knowledge and the dignity of the Prophet's (s) lineage and progeny:
- The first volume of the book is devoted to the honor of knowledge and the virtues of scholars.
- The second part of the book—its second and third volumes—is concerned with the virtues of Ahl al-Bayt (a) in 15 chapters. It is concerned with issues such as the purity of Ahl al-Bayt (a), their intercession and appealing to them, the obligation to love them as emphasized by verses of the Qur'an.
Materials about each of the Imams (a) is mentioned under different titles, and more detailed information is given about some Imams (a), such as Imam al-Husayn's (a) martyrdom. The author also talks about moral behaviors of the Imams (a).
The Author's Approach
In accordance with his non-Shiite beliefs, the author takes the al-Tathir Verse to be about the Prophet's (s) wives and residents of his house. He does not take it to be solely about the Five (a): the Prophet (s), Imam Ali (a), Fatima al-Zahra (a), Imam al-Hasan (a), and Imam al-Husayn (a). And with respect to the Event of Ghadir, he maintains that it is irrelevant to the caliphate (succession) of Imam Ali (a) and it does not prove his priority to Abu Bakr b. Abi Quhafa and 'Umar b. al-Khattab.
Part of the book is devoted to Imam al-Husyan (a), his martyrdom, and events after 'Ashura, such as what happened to his head and some unnatural events.
Style of Writing
The book is hadith-centered. The author cites sources, hadiths, and different views about an issue, and then presents his own opinion by saying "Aqul" (I say).
Part of the sources of the book is hadith-centered and part of it is historical, such as:Muruj al-dhahab written by al-Mas'udi, Wafayt al-a'yan by Ibn Khallikan, Manaqib Amir al-Mu'minin by al-Khwarazmi, Ma'arij al-wusul and Nazm durar al-simtayn by al-Zarandi al-Shafi'i, Manaqib al-imam 'Ali b. Abi Talib by Ibn Maghazeli. There are other sources such as Ibn Sa'd's al-Tabaqat al-kabir, al-Isti'ab by Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, al-Fusul al-muhimma by Ibn Sabbagh al-Maliki, al-Mustadrak by Hakim al-Nishaburi and also some Shi'a sources like I'lam al-wara.
There are many manuscripts and copies of the book and this shows its popularity and significance. Both Shiite and Sunni writers have cited the book such as al-Shabrawi in al-Ithaf bi hub al-ashraf, al-Qunduzi in Yanabi' al-mawadda, al-Shablanji in Nur al-absar, Mir Hamid Sharif in 'Abaqat al-anwar and Mirza Husayn Nuri in al-Najm al-thaqib.
Manuscripts and publications
Sayyid 'Abd al-'Aziz Tabataba'i mentioned numerous manuscripts of Jawahir al-'iqdayn, but in the book itself, he only mentions the following three:
- The original, old manuscript with the handwriting of Muhammad b. Yahya in the central library of Awqaf in Baghdad
- Another manuscript in the central library of Awqaf in Baghdad, endowed by Hajj Amin al-Afandi.
- Another manuscript in the central library of Awqaf in Baghdad, endowed by Ibrahim Fasih al-Haydari.
The book was published in 1405/1984-85 in Baghdad by Matba'a al-'Ani.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from (جواهر العقدین فی فضل الشرفین (کتاب in Farsi WikiShia.