|Full Name||Suhayb b. Sinan b. Khalid (Malik) b. ʿAbd ʿAmr b. ʿAqil b. ʿAmir|
|Well Known As||Suhayb b. Sinan al-Rumi|
|Place(s) of Residence||Mecca, Medina|
|Burial Place||Baqi' cemetery|
|Presence at Ghazwas||Badr, Uhud, Khandaq and ...|
Ṣuhayb b. Sinān b. Khālid (Mālik) b. ʿAbd ʿAmr b. ʿAqīl b. ʿĀmir (Arabic:صهيب بن سنان بن خالد (مالک) بن عبد عمر بن عقيل بن عامر) (d. 38/658-9 according to the famous report) was among the companions of the Prophet (s) and the first Muslims who accepted Islam at the same time with 'Ammar. He joined the Prophet (s) in Quba after his immigration.
He participated in all battles of the Prophet (s). When the second caliph was sick, he led the prayer on his behalf. After 'Umar died, Suhayb b. Sinan performed the prayer upon his body according to his will. After the assassination of 'Uthman, he did not give allegiance to Imam Ali (a). In al-Ikhtisas, there is a hadith criticizing him. According to al-Zirkili, he narrated 307 hadiths.
Lineage and Childhood
The lineage of Suhayb has been mentioned in historical sources as:
- Suhayb b. Sinan b. Khalid b. 'Abd 'Amr b. Tufayl b. 'Amir b. Jandala b. Ka'b b. Sa'd b. Khuzayma b. Ka'b b. Sa'd.
- According to al-Waqidi: Suhayb b. Sinan b. Khalid b. 'Abd 'Amr b. 'Aqil b. Ka'b b. Sa'd.
- According to Ibn Ishaq: Suhayb b. Sinan b. Malik b. 'Abd 'Amr b. 'Aqil b. 'Amir b. Jandala b. Judhayma b. Ka'b b. Sa'd.
Suhayb b. Sinan was from the tribe of Nimr b. Qasit who were originally from Iraq and lived beside tigris river near Mosul. His father and uncle were among governors of Kasra over Aballa. Suhayb was taken captives in one of the battles between Iran and Rome. He was taken to Rome and he was raised there; thus, he was called Suhayb al-Rumi and had a stutter. Some of Kalb tribe bought him with some other Roman slaves and sold them to 'Abd Allah Jud'an in Mecca. 'Abd Allah released him. In historical sources, he has also been referred to as the servant of 'Abd Allah b. Juz'an. The Prophet (s) called him Abu Yahya.
Acceptance of Islam
Suhayb and 'Ammar b. Yasir accepted Islam after thirty some people. When the Prophet (s) and some other Muslims had hidden themselves in the house of Arqam, 'Ammar b. Yasir was waiting at the doorstep of Arqam to go in when Suhayb arrived. 'Ammar asked him, "why have you come here?" Suhayb asked his same question back, "Why have you come here?" Ammar said, "I have come to meet the Messenger of God (s) and hear his words". Suhayb said, "I have the same intention." The Prophet (s) offered Islam to them and they accepted it. The Prophet (s) made a Pact of Brotherhood between Suhayb and Harith b. Samah.
After the Prophet (s) immigrated to Medina, Suhayb moved toward Medina too. Disbelievers of Quraysh chased him. Suhayb put an arrow in his bow and said, "you all know me and that I am perfect in shooting arrows. If you do not let me go, I will throw to the last of my arrows and then I will fight you with sword. Moreover, I have no benefit for you. I will show you the place of my properties to take them and let me go". They accepted the deal and returned. He continued his way until he reached the Prophet (s) in Quba.
Suhayb participated in the battles of Badr, Uhud, Khandaq and other battles of the Prophet (s). About him, the noble Prophet (s) said, "the leaders are four people; I am the leader of Arabs, Suhayb is the leader of Romans, Salman is the leader of Persian,s and Bilal is the leader of Habesha.
After the Prophet (s)
The second caliph loved Suhayb so much. Thus, he willed that he prayed upon his body after he died. During the days he was sick, he ordered that Suhayb leads the congregational prayer instead of 'Umar. With this order, Suhayb led the prayer until the end of judgment of the Six-Member Council.
After the assassination of 'Uthman, Suhayb was among those who did not give allegiance to Imam Ali (a). According to a hadith in al-Ikhtisas, he was criticized by the Ahl al-Bayt (a) because of some bad actions.
Suhayb passed aways in Medina in 38/658-59 and was buried in al-Baqi' cemetery. His death has also been reported either in 32/652-3, 37/657-8 or in 39/659-60. His age upon death has been reported either in 70/689-90, 73/692-3 and in 90/708-9.
Suhayb has transmitted hadith from the Second Caliph. According to al-Zirkili, 307 hadiths have been narrated from him.
Jabir, Sa'id b. al-Musayyib b. Hazin, 'Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Layli, Ka'b al-Ahbar and his children: Habib, Hamza, Sa'd, Salih, Sayfi, 'Ubbad, 'Uthman, Muhammad and his grandson Ziyad b. Sayfi narrated hadith from him.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from صهیب بن سنان in Farsi WikiShia.