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Jariya b. Qudama

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Sahaba
Jariya b. Qudama
Personal Information
Teknonym Abu Ayyub, Abu Yazid, Abu Walid
Lineage Banu Sa'd
Place(s) of Residence Basra
Death/Martyrdom 50/670
Religious Information
Known for A companion of Imam 'Ali (a) and Imam al-Hasan (a)
Notable Roles Commander of Imam 'Ali's army
Other Activities accompanying Imam Ali (a) in the battles of Jamal, Siffin, and Nahrawan; being loyal to Imam al-Hasan (a)

Jārīya b. Qudāma (Arabic: جاریة بن قُدامة) was one of the Prophet's (s) sahaba and a companion of Imam Ali (a) and Imam al-Hasan (a). After 'Uthman b. 'Affan's murder in 35/656, he encouraged people of Basra to pledge their allegiance to Imam Ali (a). He was on Imam Ali's (a) side in the battles of Jamal, Siffin, and Nahrawan. After Imam Ali's (a) martyrdom, Jariya went to Mecca and then Medina and encouraged people there to pledge their allegiance to Imam al-Hasan (a).

After the Peace Treaty of Imam al-Hasan (a) with Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan, Jariya went to Mu'awiya, and in response to his condescending remarks, Jariya courageously and explicitly talked about his love of Imam Ali (a) and called Mu'awiya an inferior person.

Lineage

Jariya's grandfather was called Zuhayr b. Husayn, and according to some sources,[1] his grandfather or father was called Malik. His teknonym was Abu Ayyub, Abu Yazid,[2] and Abu Walid.[3]

Since he was from the Banu Sa'd tribe (a clan of Zayd Manat b. Tamim), he was called "al-Sa'di al-Tamimi",[4] and since he resided in the district of Bahariyya in Basra, he was called "al-Basri".[5]

According to some scholars, Jariya b. Qudama was from Tabi'un and so he did not meet the Prophet (s).[6] But according to many scholars of 'ilm al-rijal and biographers, Jariya was one of the Prophet's (s) companion.[7]

In the Period of Imam Ali (a)

Jariya was a senior member of Banu Tamim, a brave and respectable man, and a loyal companion of Imam Ali (a) and one of his gallant commanders in many of Imam Ali's (a) battles.[8]

After 'Uthman b. 'Affan's murder in 35/656, Jariya encouraged people of Basra to pledge their allegiance to Imam Ali (a).[9]

In the Battle of Jamal

In the Battle of Jamal in 36/656, Jariya who was in Imam Ali's (a) army and the head of Tamimis of Basra,[10] went to Aisha and reproached her for dishonoring herself and told her that her rise against the Imam (a) was worse than 'Uthman's murder and asked her to return.[11] After the battle, Jariya accompanied Imam Ali (a) when he departed to Babylon. It is said that in this journey, Imam Ali (a) prayed that God return the sun so that Jariya can perform his afternoon prayer with him.[12]

See also: Radd al-Shams

In the Battle of Siffin

In the Battle of Siffin, Jariya b. Qudama joined the Imam (a) with an army of 1700 people of Basra, including people from the Sa'd and al-Rubab tribes.[13] In this battle, Jariya sang paeans in his combat with 'Abd al-Rahman b. Khalid b. Walid.[14]

In the Battle of Nahrawan

In Imam Ali's (a) battle with Khawarij, Jariya joined the Imam (a) with an army of 3000 or 5000 (or more) people in Nukhayla.[15] Ali (a) sent Jariya and 500 soldiers ahead of his army and then sent 2000 people after them. Jariya stood against the Khawarij and preached them.[16]

In the Battle with Ashhab

After the Battle of Nahrawan, Ashhab b. Bashir (or Bishr) al-Qarani al-Bajali rose against Imam Ali (a) together with 130 or 180 people. The Imam (a) sent Jariya to combat him. In a battle that occurred in Jarjaraya, between Wasit and Baghdad, Ashhab and his fellows were killed.[17]

In the Battle with 'Abd Allah b. al-Hadrami

In 38/658, Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan commissioned 'Abd Allah b. al-Hadrami to conquer Basra. When A'yan b. Dubay'a, one of Imam Ali's (a) companions, was killed in the combat with Ibn al-Hadrami, Ziyad, the Imam's (a) agent in Basra, suggested to him that Jariya b. Qudama, who was known as a sharp and strict warrior, and 50 people from Banu Tamim be sent from Kufa to Basra. Aided with Ziyad and Azdis, Jariya went to war with Ibn al-Hadrami and quenched him and his army.[18]

In the Battle with Busr b. Artat

In 40/660 when Mu'awiya's commanders attacked Imam Ali's (a) territories and Busr b. Artat aggressed Mecca and Medina and plundered and killed people in Yemen, Imam Ali (a) invited people to jihad and defense against the enemies.[19] People exhibited indolence and reluctance to go to war, but Jariya expressed his resolution to go to war. Imam Ali (a) praised his compassion, benevolence and competence and asked him to be prepared. He then preached him to observe piety in the war and sent him with an army to quench the enemy. Jariya traveled from city to city and chased Busr b. Artat until he could expel Busr from Yemen. Jariya did not usurp any money and property and did not kill anyone except a group of people from Najran who had abandoned Islam and some people from 'Uthmaniyya who had hosted and helped Busr in Hadramut. When Jariya arrived in Jurash, he stayed there for one month. During his stay there he heard the news about Imam Ali's (a) martyrdom.

In the Period of Imam al-Hasan (a)

After Imam Ali's (a) martyrdom, Jariya went to Mecca and then Medina, encouraging people there to pledge their allegiance to Imam al-Hasan (a) and then went to Kufa. Busr b. Artat went back to Mu'awiya in Syria via Samawa.[20] Jariya went to Imam al-Hasan (a) and pledged his allegiance to him and expressed his condolences for Imam Ali's (a) martyrdom. He asked Imam al-Hasan (a) to launch a battle with Mu'awiya and Syrian army. Imam al-Hasan (a) replied: "I would do so if all people were like you".[21] After the Peace Treaty of Imam al-Hasan (a) with Mu'awiya, Jariya went to Mu'awiya and in response to his condescending remarks, he courageously and explicitly talked about his love of Imam Ali (a) and called Mu'awiya an inferior person.[22] It is said that Mu'awiya forgave him and gave 100,000 dirhams, or 900 acres of estate to him.[23]

A Narrator of Hadiths from the Prophet (s)

He narrated hadiths from the Prophet (s).[24] It is said that Jariya asked the Prophet (s) to teach him something simple, and the Prophet (s) told him: "never get angry".[25] People of Medina and Basra narrated hadiths from Jariya b. Qudama.[26] Scholars of 'ilm al-rijal praised Jariya and considered him as a reliable narrator of hadiths.[27]

Demise

According to al-Safdi,[28] Jariya died about 50/670, but according to Ibn Hibban,[29] he died in the period of Yazid b. Mu'awiya (reign: 60-64/680-683). Some grandchildren of Jariya b. Qudama later resided in Isfahan[30] and Khorasan.[31]

Notes

  1. Khalīfa b. Khayyāṭ, Kitab al-ṭabaqāt, p. 89; p. 305; Ṣafdī, al-Wāfī bi l-Wafīyāt, vol. 11, p. 37.
  2. Khalīfa b. Khayyāṭ, Kitab al-ṭabaqāt, p. 89; p. 305; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 11, p. 482.
  3. Ḥākim al-Nayshābūrī, al-Mustadrak, vol. 3, p. 615.
  4. Ibn Ḥabīb, Kitāb al-muḥabbar, p. 290; Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 2, p. 261.
  5. Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl, vol. 2, p. 520; Ḥākim al-Nayshābūrī, al-Mustadrak, vol. 3, p. 615.
  6. ʿIjlī, Maʿārifat al-thiqāt, vol. 1, p. 99; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 1, p. 263.
  7. Khalīfa b. Khayyāṭ, Kitab al-ṭabaqāt, p. 89; p. 305; Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl, vol. 2, p. 520; Abū Nuʿaym, Maʿrifat al-sahāba, vol. 1, p. 489-490; Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī, p. 33.
  8. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 11, p. 482; Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī, p. 59; Ibn Makūlā, al-Ikmāl, vol. 2, p. 1; Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, p. 26.
  9. Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 3, p. 102.
  10. Mufīd, al-Jumal, p. 321.
  11. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam, vol. 4, p. 465.
  12. Abū l-Futūḥ al-Rāzī, Rawḍ al-Jinān, vol. 4, p. 170.
  13. Naṣr b. Muzāhim, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 205; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam, vol. 5, p. 79; Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balagha, vol. 4, p. 27.
  14. Naṣr b. Muzāhim, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 395; Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balagha, vol. 2, p. 222.
  15. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 260.
  16. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 347.
  17. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 346; Ibn al-Athīr al-Jazarī, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 3, p. 371-372.
  18. Ibn Kalbī, Jumhurat al-nsab, vol. 1, p. 242; Khalīfa b. Khayyāṭ, Tārīkh-i Khalīfa, p. 148; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 309-314; vol. 11, p. 481; Thaqafī, al-Ghārāt, vol. 2, p. 407-408, 410-412; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam, vol. 5, p. 112.
  19. Khalīfa b. Khayyāṭ, Tārīkh-i Khalīfa, p. 150; Thaqafī, al-Ghārāt, vol. 2, p. 624.
  20. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 330; Thaqafī, al-Ghārāt, vol. 2, p. 621, 633, 638-640; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam, vol. 5, p. 139-140; Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, 198-200; Kashshī, Rijāl, vol. 1, p. 322.
  21. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 34, p. 18.
  22. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 4, p. 71-72; vol. 11, p. 482; Mufīd, Kitāb al-amālī, p. 171.
  23. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 4, p. 106-107; vol. 11, p. 482;
  24. Ibn Ḥabīb, Kitāb al-muḥabbar, vol. 290.
  25. Ḥākim al-Nayshābūrī, al-Mustadrak, vol. 3, p. 615; Abū Nuʿaym, Maʿrifat al-sahāba, vol. 1, p. 490; Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 2, p. 261-262.
  26. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 1, p. 263.
  27. ʿIjlī, Maʿārifat al-thiqāt, vol. 1, p. 99; Ibn Ḥabbān, Mashāhīr ʿulamā, vol. 3, p. 60; Ibn Dāwūd al-Ḥillī, Kitāb al-rijāl, p. 61.
  28. Ṣafdī, al-Wāfī bi l-Wafīyāt, vol. 11, p. 37.
  29. Ibn Ḥabbān, Mashāhīr ʿulamā, p. 71.
  30. Abū Nuʿaym al-Iṣfahānī, Dhikr akhbār Iṣbahān, vol. 1, p. 88-89.
  31. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 11, p. 483.

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