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Hudhayfa b. al-Yaman

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Sahaba
Hudhayfa b. al-Yaman
Personal Information
Teknonym Abu 'Abd Allah
Lineage 'Abs tribe in Yemen
Muhajir/Ansar Ansar
Place(s) of Residence Mecca, Medina, Mada'in
Death/Martyrdom 36 or 37/656-7 or 657-8
Burial Place Mada'in
Religious Information
Presence at Ghazwas Uhud, Khandaq, Tabuk, and others
Migration to Medina
Known for Sahib al-sirr of the Prophet (s)
Notable Roles Ruler of Mada'in in the time of 'Umar, Commander of army in the battle of Nahawand
Other Activities Narrating hadiths about virtues of Imam Ali (a) and Ahl al-Bayt

Ḥudhayfa b. al-Yamān (Arabic: حُذَیفة بن الیمان) was a well-known companions of the Prophet (s) and one of the first people who converted to Islam. He accompanied the Prophet (s) in many battles in the early years of Islam. He was a special and a close companion of Imam Ali (a). In some hadiths, he is mentioned as one of the four main companions of Imam Ali (a).

He narrated hadiths regarding the place and virtues of Imam Ali (a) and Ahl al-Bayt (a). He also attended the conquests of the early caliphs, including the Battle of Nahawand.

Lineage

Abu 'Abd Allah Hudayfa b. al-Yaman b. Hisl or Husayl was from the 'Abs tribe in Yemen.[1] Al-Yaman, his father, went to Medina before the emergence of Islam and allied with the household of 'Abd al-Ashhal, from the Aws clan, and married Rubab, Ka'b's daughter.[2] He had three other sons from Rubab: Sa'd,[3] Safwan,[4] and Mudlaj[5] and three daughters called Layla,[6] Salama,[7] and Fatima.[8]

Hudhayfa in the Period of the Prophet (s)

Hudhayfa was one of the first people who converted to Islam.[9] He migrated to Medina after the Prophet (s). He was one of the Muhajirun, on the one hand, and, on the other, since he was allied to a clan in Medina, he was considered as one of the Ansar as well.[10] The Prophet (s) gave Hudhayfa the option to count himself in either of the two groups, and he chose to be known as one of the Ansar. The Prophet (s) confirmed his choice[11] and made a pact of brotherhood between him and 'Ammar, from the Muhajirun.[12]

Hudhayfa did not attend the Battle of Badr,[13] but he attended the Battle of Uhud together with his father. Muslims unintentionally killed his father.[14] Hudhayfa asked God to forgive the people who who killed his father, and when the Prophet (s) wanted to pay the blood money from the Treasury, he refused to take it.[15]

In the Battle of Khandaq, Hudhayfa was asked by the Prophet (s) to obtain information about the enemy's camp, and he successfully did so.[16] He also attended other battles of the Prophet (s).[17]

He was trusted by the Prophet (s). The Prophet (s) let him know about many future events and seditions, the true character of some people and hypocrites.[18] In particular, when the Prophet (s) was returning from Tabuk, he told Hudhayfa the names of all the hypocrites.[19] This is why biographers called him the Prophet (s)'s "Sahib al-Sirr" (confidant).[20]

The Prophet (s) said about Hudhayfa and Imam Ali (a) that "they know the hypocrites better than all other people".[21]

Many hadiths have been narrated by Hudhayfa.[22] He was known as being pious, ascetic, and avoiding to accumulate wealth.[23]

Hudhayfa During the Caliphs

'Umar b. al-Khattab appointed Hudhayfa as the commander of the Battle of Nahawand. When al-Nu'man b. Muqrin was killed, he undertook the commandership of the army and conquered Nahawand.[24] He then conquered other cities in Iran.[25]

He was also appointed as the ruler of al-Mada'in in the period of 'Umar.[26]

In the period of 'Uthman, Hudhayfa attended the funeral of Abu Dhar.[27] He also informed 'Uthman about different versions of the Qur'an and suggested that a unified version of the Qur'an be compiled.[28]

Hudhayfa in the Period of Imam Ali (a)

He is considered as one of the four main companions of Imam Ali (a).[29] Al-Kashshi[30] cited a hadith in which Hudhayfa is considered one of the seven people because of whom God bestows His blessings and bounties to people. These seven people attended the funeral of Fatima al-Zahra (a).

When Imam Ali (a) arrived in the area of Dhi Qar on his way to the Battle of Jamal, Hudhayfa told his companions: "accompany Amir al-Mu'minin (a) and the successor of the Prophet (s). The right thing is to assist him".[31]

He narrated hadiths regarding the place and virtues of Imam Ali (a)[32] and Ahl al-Bayt (a).[33]

Hudhayfa also narrated a hadith from the Prophet (s) according to which there will be twelve Imams after him.[34]

Al-Mas'udi[35] reported that Hudhayfa's two sons, Safwan and Sa'd, accompanied Imam Ali (a) in the Battle of Siffin and that they were martyred there. But according to al-Tabari,[36] Sa'd was alive during the rise of Tawwabun: Sulayman b. Surad asked for his help and he offered his help in reply.

Death

Hudhayfa died in 36/656-7[37] or 37/657-8[38] in al-Mada'in. Hudhayfa's grandchildren were in al-Mada'in until the 3rd/9th century.[39]

Notes

  1. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 7, p. 317; vol. 8, 320; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 1, p. 390.
  2. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 7, p. 317; vol. 8, 320; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 1, p. 390.
  3. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 215.
  4. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 7, p. 317.
  5. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 342.
  6. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 441.
  7. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 215.
  8. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 320.
  9. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 250.
  10. Ibn Qutayba, al-Maʿārif, p. 263; Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 2, p. 40.
  11. Ibn Qutayba, al-Maʿārif, p. 263.
  12. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 355; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 250.
  13. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 7, p. 317; vol. 8, 320; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 1, p. 391.
  14. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 301; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 2, p. 43.
  15. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 233-234.
  16. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 2, p. 488-491; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 2, p. 69.
  17. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 15.
  18. Mirwazī, al-Fitan, p. 14; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 2, p. 346.
  19. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 3, p. 1042-1044; Rāwandī, al-Kharāʾij wa l-jarāʾiḥ, vol. 2, p. 504-505.
  20. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, part 1, p. 335; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 1, p. 391.
  21. Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 1, p. 127.
  22. Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 5, p. 497-499.
  23. Abū Nuʿaym, Ḥilyat al-awlīyāʾ, vol. 1, p. 270-283; Ibn Jawzī, Ṣafwat al-ṣafwa, vol. 1, p. 249-251.
  24. Muqaddisī, al-Bidaʾ wa tārīkh, vol. 5, p. 181; Ibn al-Athīr al-Jazarī, Usd al-ghāba, ?
  25. Ibn al-Athīr al-Jazarī, Usd al-ghāba,vol. 1, p. 391.
  26. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 7, p. 317.
  27. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 173.
  28. Numīrī, Tārīkh al-madīna al-munawwara, vol. 3, p. 992.
  29. Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī, p. 60.
  30. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 6-7.
  31. Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balāgha, vol. 2, p. 188.
  32. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 1, p. 91.
  33. Irbilī, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2, p. 95, 219.
  34. Khazzāz al-Qummī, Kifāyat al-athar, p. 136.
  35. Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 3, p. 131.
  36. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 555.
  37. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 7, p. 317.
  38. Ṣadūq, al-Amālī, p. 490; Fattāl al-Nayshābūrī, Rawḍat al-wāʿiẓīn, vol. 2, p. 286.
  39. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 7, p. 317.

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