Umama bt. Abi l-As b. al-Rabi'
|Umama bt. Abi l-As b. al-Rabi'|
Wife of Imam 'Ali (a)
|Well-known Relatives||The Prophet (s) [grandfather], Lady Khadija (a) [grandmother], Zaynab bt. Muhammad [mother]|
|Place of Birth||Mecca|
|Place of Residence||Medina|
Umāma bt. Abi l-ʿĀṣ b. al-Rabīʿ (Arabic: أمامة بنت ابي العاص بن الربيع) was the daughter of Zaynab, who was the daughter of the Prophet (s) and Khadija (a). She married Imam Ali (a) after the martyrdom of Lady Fatima (a). It is said that this marriage took place upon the request of Lady Fatiam (a).
Umama was born before the Bi'tha and died in 50/670. Her father Abu l-'As b. al-Rabi' (d. 12/633-34), was Khadija's nephew. He accepted Islam in about 6/627-28. Her mother, Zaynab, was the daughter of the Prophet (s) and Khadija (a), who died in 8/629-30 and was buried in al-Baqi'.
The Prophet (s) loved Umama so dearly and would place her on his shoulders while saying prayers. Before sajda he would lay her on the floor and when rising he would pick her up again. The faqihs use this narration in order to justify to allow doing certain things while saying prayers.
After the demise of Fatima al-Zahra (a), upon her request, Imam Ali (a) married Umama and got a son from her, named Muhammad al-Awsat. When Imam Ali (s) got wounded by Ibn Muljam, he demanded Umama to marry al-Mughira b. Nawfal. After her 'idda had passed, she married him and till his death was his wife and gave birth to a child called Yahya. Some believe, however, that she got no children from Imam 'Ali (a) and al-Mughira.
According to some reports, Imam Ali (a), when he was already on deathbed, asked al-Mughira to marry Umama, for he was afraid that after his death, Mu'awiya would propose marriage to her. In another report Imam Ali (a) has said to Umama, "If you would need to get married after my death, marry al-Mughira". After Ali (a) passed away, Mu'awiya proposed her marriage. She sent a message to al-Mughira saying that Mu'awiya wanted to marry her and if he would want her as his wife, he should ask for her hand. And it was such that Umama became al-Mughira's wife.
In the Shi'a sources, there is a narration ascribed to her, describing Imam Ali's moods and manners.
- Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol.4, p.24.
- Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol.4, p.473.
- Wāqidī, Al-Maghāzī, vol1, p.139; Ibn Hishām, Al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol.2, p.306.
- Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol.4, p.473.
- Khalīfa b. Khayyāt, Tārīkh Khalīfa b. Khayyāt, p.44.
- Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Al-Istīʿāb, vol.4, p.22; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol.6, p.22;ʿAsqalānī, Al-Iṣāba, vol.8, p.24; Maqdisī, Al-Badʾa wa al-tārīkh, vol.7, p.331; Ibn Saʿd, Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol.8, p.32.
- See: al-Majlisī, Biḥār al-anvār, vol.81, p.288.
- Nūrī, Mustadrak al-wasāʾil, vol.2, p.135; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol.6, p.22; al-Majlisī, vol.43, p.217.
- Ibn Saʿd, Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol.3, p.14; Ibn al-Athīr, Al-Kāmil fī al-tārīkh, vol.3, p.397; Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol.3, p.193.
- Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol.4, p.473 , vol.6, p.22; ʿAsqalānī, Al-Iṣāba, vol.8, p.25; Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol.4, p.24; Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Al-Istīʿāb, vol.4, p.1789.
- Ibn Saʿd, Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol.8, p.168; See: ʿAsqalānī, Al-Iṣāba, vol.8, p.25; Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Al-Istīʿāb, vol.4, p.1789.
- Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Al-Istīʿāb, vol.2, p.1789.
- Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Al-Istīʿāb, vol.2, p.1789-1790.
- Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.6, p.170.
- ʿAllama al-Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anvār al-jāmiʿa lidurar akhbār al-aʾimma al-aṭhār. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Wafāʾ, 1404AH.
- Balādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Kitāb jumal min ansāb al-ashrāf. Edited by Suhayl Zakkār wa Rīyāḍ Ziriklī. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1417AH-1996.
- Dhahabī, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad. Tārīkh al-Islām wa wafayāt al-mashāhīr wa al-aʿlām. Edited by ʿUmar ʿAbd al-Salām Tadmurī. 2end edition. Beirut: 1413AH-1993.
- Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd Allah b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Istīʿāb fī mʿrifat al-aṣḥāb. Edited by ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Bajāwī. Beirut: Dar al-Jīl, 1412AH-1992.
- Ibn al-Athīr, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad Jazarī . Usd al-ghāba fī maʿrifat al-ṣaḥāba. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1409AH-1989.
- Ibn al-Athīr, ʿAlī b. Abī l-Karam. Al-Kāmil fī al-tārīkh. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, 1385AH-1965.
- Ibn Ḥajar ʿAsqalānī, Ahmad b. Alī . Al-Iṣāba fī tamyīz al-ṣaḥaba. Edited by ʿĀdil Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Mawjūd wa ʿAlī Muḥammad Muʿawwaḍ. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1415AH-1995.
- Ibn Hishām, ʿAbd al-Malik. Al-Sīra al-nabawīyya. Edited by Mustafā Saqqā. Ciro: 1375AH-1955.
- Ibn Saʿd, Muḥammad b. Manīʿ al-Ḥāshimī al-Baṣrī. Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā. Edited by Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Qādir ʿAṭā. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1410AH-1990.
- Khalīfa b. Khayyāt. Tārīkh Khalīfa b. Khayyāt. Edited by Mustafā Najīb Fawwāz. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿilmīyya, 1415AH-1995.
- Maqdisī, Muṭahhar b. Ṭāhir al-. Al-Badʾa wa l-tārīkh. Port Said: Maktab al-Thaqāfa al-Dīnīyya.
- Nūrī al-Ṭabarsī, Mīrzā Husayn al-. Mustadrak al-wasāʾil wa mustanbaṭ al-masāʾil. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt ʿalayhim al-salām, 1408AH.
- Wāqidī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Al-Maghāzī. Edited by Marsden Jones. London:1996.