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Abu Qatada al-Ansari

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Sahaba
Abu Qatada al-Ansari
Personal Information
Teknonym Abu Qatada
Epithet Faris Rasul Allah (s)
Muhajir/Ansar Ansar
Place(s) of Residence Medina
Death/Martyrdom 38/658-9 or 40/660-1
Burial Place Kufa or Medina
Religious Information
Presence at Ghazwas all ghazwas (there is different idea regarding his presence in Battle of Badr)
Known for Companion of Imam 'Ali (a)
Notable Roles Governor of Mecca
Other Activities his mission against to kill Abu Rafi' Sallam b. Abi l-Haqiq, Participation in the Conquest of Iran and battles of Jamal, Siffin, Nahrawan

Abū Qatāda, Ḥārith b. Ribʿī b. Rāfiʿ al-Anṣārī (Arabic: ابوقَتاده حارث بن رِبعي بن رافِع الأنصاري) (d. 38/658-659 or 40/661-662) was among the elders of the Helpers and companions of the Prophet (s). He was a soldier of the Prophet's (s) army, known as "Faris Rasul Allah (s)". In most battles, he fought for the Prophet (s) and at the time of Imam 'Ali (a), he participated in the battles of Jamal, Siffin, and Nahrawan. Abu Qatada has narrated from the Prophet (s) and some others.

His Name and Tteknonym

His teknonym is Abu Qatada, but there are different opinions about his name. Some have recorded it Nu'man or 'Amr. The lineage of his father has been mentioned as Rib'i b. Baldama (or Taldhama) b. Khinas b. Sinan b. 'Ubayd b. 'Adiyy b. Ghanm b. Ka'b b. Salama.[1]

His Participation in Ghazwas and Sariyyas

Abu Qatada was a horseman in the army of the Prophet (s) who was known as "Faris Rasul Allah (s)".[2] It is mentioned that in the Ghazwa (battle) of Ghaba when Abu Qatada killed Mas'ada in revenge of Muhriz b. Nadla, a companion of the Prophet (s), he (s) called Abu Qatada his "Faris" (horseman).[3]

In most Ghazwas and Sariyyas, Abu Qatada participated but there are different opinions about his participation in the Battle of Badr. Referring to this disagreement, Ibn Athir said that he believed that Abu Qatada participated in all the battles of the Prophet (s) including the Battle of Badr.[4]

Al-Tabarani has also reported that on the eve of the day when the Battle of Badr happened, Abu Qatada was the guard of the Prophet (s).[5] Except for the Battle of Badr, there is an agreement about his participation in the Battle of Uhud and later battles accompanying the Prophet (s)[6] and even they have said that in the Battle of Uhud when he became upset of the Prophet's (s) deep sadness due to enemies' behavior and actions and mutilation of the martyrs and wanted to curse Quraysh, the Prophet (s) prohibited and ordered him to stay calm and be patient.[7]

Abu Qatada was a horseman in most battles[8] and sometimes was in charge of commanding the group.[9]

Special Mission

In 4/625-626, he was assigned, together with four other horsemen, to kill Abu Rafi' Sallam b. Abi l-Haqiq who, allocating great rewards, urged a group from Ghatfan tribe and neighboring Arabs to fight with the Prophet (s). Abu Qatada finished this mission successfully.[10]

The Time of Caliphs

Not Accompanying Khalid

After the Prophet's (s) demise, Abu Qatada was in the army of Khalid b. Walid in the event of killing of Malik b. Nuwayra. Since he believed in transgression of Khalid, he went to Abu Bakr and sworn that he would not any longer go to war under the banner of Khalid.[11] This position of him has been highlighted in Twelver Shi'a theological references such as al-Shafi of al-Sharif al-Murtada.[12]

Participation in the Conquest of Iran

It is said that Abu Qatada had an important role in the conquest of Iran at the time of 'Umar b. al-Khattab.[13]

In the Government of Imam 'Ali (a)

During the caliphate of Imam 'Ali (a), Abu Qatada fought for Imam (a) in the battles of Jamal and Siffin[14] and when Imam (a) was entering Basra during the Battle of Jamal, Abu Qatada was among his horsemen.[15]

In the battle against Khawarij, Abu Qatada was among the commanders of the army and led the foot soldiers.[16] He was also the governor of Mecca for a while during the rule of Imam 'Ali (a).[17]

Narrating Hadiths

In addition to the Prophet (s), Abu Qatada has narrated from Ma'adh and 'Uamr b. al-Khattab.

Anas b. Malik, Sa'id b. Musayyib, 'Ata' b. Yasar, 'Ali b. Riyah, 'Abd Allah b. Riyah and some others including his sons, Thabit and 'Abd Allah, have narrated from Abu Qatada.[18] Many narrations have been mentioned from him in hadith references such as al-Sihah al-Sitta[19] and Musnad Ibn Hanbal.[20]

His Demise

Some have mentioned that his death happened in 38/658-659 and some others have mentioned it in 40/660-661. Also, it has been said that he passed away in Kufa and Imam 'Ali (a) performed prayer upon him,[21] but the report about his demise in Medina is more famous.[22] Abu Qatada passed away at the age of 70.[23]

Notes

  1. Khalīfa, Tārīkh-i Khalīfa, vol. 1, p. 224; Ibn Ḥabbān, Tārīkh al-ṣaḥāba, p. 69.
  2. Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 5, p. 274; Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 4, p. 158.
  3. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 2, p. 762; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kabīr, vol. 2, p. 58, 61; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 2, p. 600.
  4. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 2, p. 600.
  5. Haythamī, Majmaʿ al-zawāʾid, vol. 9, p. 319.
  6. Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 8, p. 68; Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 4, p. 158.
  7. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 290, 291.
  8. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 384-385; 404-405.
  9. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 2, p. 777-778.
  10. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 391-394; Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 3, p. 287.
  11. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 131-132; Balādhurī, Futūḥ al-buldān, p. 98; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 3, p. 280.
  12. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 4, p. 165.
  13. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 2, p. 452.
  14. Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 4, p. 158-159.
  15. Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 2, p. 359-360.
  16. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 371; Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 210; Khaṭīb Baghdādī, Tārīkh-i Baghdād, vol. 1, p. 159-160.
  17. Khalīfa b. Khayyāṭ, Tārīkh-i Khalīfa, vol. 1, p. 232; Fākihī, al-Muntaqā, p. 163.
  18. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 2, p. 449; Ibn Ḥajar, Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb, vol. 12, p. 204.
  19. Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 9, p. 240-272.
  20. Ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad al-Imām Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, vol. 5, p. 295-311.
  21. Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 3, p. 500.
  22. Ḥākim al-Nayshābūrī, al-Mustadrak, vol. 3, p. 480.
  23. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 2, p. 545.

References

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