Ikrima b. Abi Jahl

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Ikrima b. Abi Jahl
Full NameʿIkrima b. Abi Jahl
LineageQuraysh
Well-known RelativesAbu jahl (father)
Death13/634-5 or 15/636-7
ActivitiesAmong the enemies of the Prophet (s)

ʿIkrima b. Abī Jahl (Arabic:عِکْرِمَة بن أبي جَهْل) (d. 13/634-5 or 15/636-7 ) was a senior figure of the Quraysh tribe who was hostile toward the Prophet (s), but soon after the Conquest of Mecca, he converted to Islam and became one of the companions of the Prophet (s). Early after the Prophet’s bi'tha (beginning of the prophetical mission), he was an enemy of the Prophet (s) and participated in the battles of Badr, Uhud, and Khandaq against the Islamic army. His father, Abu Jahl, was also a senior figure in Mecca and an enemy of the Prophet (s).

After the Conquest of Mecca, the Prophet (s) issued an amnesty for all inhabitants of Mecca, except a few, including 'Ikrima b. Abi Jahl. 'Ikrima fled to Yemen, but his wife went to the Prophet (s) and received a safety conduct for her husband. After the safety conduct, he returned to Mecca and converted to Islam. After the Prophet’s demise, Abu Bakr appointed 'Ikrima as a commander of Ridda wars. Finally, 'Ikrima was killed in the Battle of the Yarmuk.

Family and Characteristics

'Ikrima, Abu Jahl’s son, was from the Quraysh tribe, Banu Makhzum clan.[1] 'Ikrima did not have a posterity[2] because his son 'Umar was killed in the Battle of Yarmuk.[3]

'Ikrima was known as a nobleman in Mecca[4] and a senior figure of the period of Jahiliyya.[5] He is also described as a well-known brave warrior.[6] His wife was Umm Halim[7] or Umm Hakim, the daughter of Harith b. Hisham[8], who received a safety conduct for him from the Prophet (s).[9]

Hostility toward the Prophet (s)

Just like his father, 'Ikrima was hostile toward the Prophet (s).[10] He participated in the Battle of Badr against the polytheists and killed a person from Ansar.[11] Moreover, he amputated the hand of a person who had a role in killing his father.[12]

In the Battle of Uhud, 'Ikrima was the commander of a part of the polytheist army.[13] When Muslim archers left the mountain pass, he and Khalid b. al-Walid attacked Muslims from behind, which caused the defeat of the Islamic army.[14]

After the Battle of Uhud, 'Ikrima, Abu Sufyan, and Abu l-A'war al-Sulami received a safety conduct from the Prophet (s), and then went to Medina to negotiate with him. They asked the Prophet (s) not to slander al-Lat, al-'Uzza, and Manat and to state that they are beneficial, so that they would say nothing about the God of Muslims. These words upset the Prophet (s), who ordered them to leave Medina. At that time, the first verse of Quran 33 was revealed:

[15]

'Ikrima participated in the Battle of the Trench as well. Together with 'Amr b. 'Abd Wadd, he passed the trench and went inside the Muslim army. However, when 'Amr was killed, he returned.[16]

Conversion to Islam

After the Conquest of Mecca, the Prophet (s) gave a public amnesty to all inhabitants of Mecca, except a few, including 'Ikrima b. Abi Jahl.[17] For this reason, 'Ikrima fled to Yemen, but his wife went to the Prophet (s) and received a safety conduct for him. She then brought 'Ikrima from Yemen to Mecca.[18] 'Ikrima converted to Islam in the presence of the Prophet (s). He swore that he would spend for Islam the double of what he had spent against it.[19]

After the Battle of Hunayn, the Prophet (s) divided the booties of the war only among the Quraysh to reconcile their hearts, including 'Ikrima b. Abi Jahl.[20] During his Farewell Hajj, the Prophet (s) appointed 'Ikrima in charge of collecting the zakat of the Hawazin tribe.[21]

After the Prophet’s demise, Abu Bakr sent 'Ikrima to Ridda wars to fight people like Ash'ath b. Qays[22], Musaylama[23], and some other apostates in Oman.[24] He then appointed him as the ruler of some areas in the Levant.[25]

Death

'Ikrima was killed in the Battle of Yarmuk in 15/636-7 during the second caliph.[26] His son 'Umar was killed in the same battle.[27] According to some sources, 'Ikrima was killed in the Battle of Ajnadayn and according to others in the Battle of Marj al-Suffar in 13/634-5.[28]

Notes

  1. Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol. 3, p. 99.
  2. Ibn Qutayba, al-Maʿārif, p. 334.
  3. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 3, p. 681.
  4. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 312.
  5. Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol. 3, p. 99.
  6. Ibn Kalbī, Jumhurat al-nasab, p. 85.
  7. Ibn Kalbī, Jumhurat al-nasab, p. 86.
  8. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 932.
  9. Ibn al-Jawzī, al-Muntaẓam, vol. 4, p. 155.
  10. Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 4, p. 443.
  11. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 301.
  12. Ziriklī, al-Aʿlām, vol. 7, p. 258.
  13. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 316.
  14. Ibn Sayyid, ʿUyūn al-athar, vol. 2, p. 19.
  15. Wāḥidī, Asbāb al-nuzūl al-Qurʾān, p. 364.
  16. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 2, p. 573.
  17. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 2, p. 195.
  18. Ibn al-Jawzī, al-Muntaẓam, vol. 4, p. 155.
  19. Ibn al-Jawzī, al-Muntaẓam, vol. 4, p. 156.
  20. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 1, p. 145.
  21. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 4.
  22. Ibn Aʿtham, al-Futūḥ, vol. 1, p. 57.
  23. Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 2, p. 360.
  24. Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol. 3, p. 99.
  25. Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol. 3, p. 99.
  26. Ibn Ḥajar, Al-Iṣāba, vol. 4, p. 443.
  27. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 3, p. 681.
  28. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 3, p. 1083.

References

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