Al-Harith b. 'Abd Allah al-Hamdani

Priority: b, Quality: b
From wikishia
Companion of Imam (a)
Al-Harith b. 'Abd Allah al-Hamdani
Companion of Imam Ali (a), Imam al-Hasan (a)
Teknonym Abu al-Zuhayr
Well Known As Al-Harith al-A'war
Lineage Hamdan
Place(s) of Residence Yeman, Medina, Kufa
Burial Place Kufa
Works Sahifat al-Harith, Kitab al-masa'il allati akhbar bi-ha Amir al-Mu'minin al-Yahudi

Al-Ḥārith b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Hamdānī (Arabic: الحارث‌ بن عبدالله الهَمْداني) or al-Ḥārith al-Aʿwar (Arabic: الحارث الأعور) was one of the Tabi'un from Kufa and a companion of Imam Ali (a) and one of the first people who pledged their allegiance to him in Medina. Al-Harith al-A'war transcribed Imam Ali's (a) hadiths and sermons, and according to Shushtari, he was the first person who collected Imam Ali's (a) sermons.

There are many hadiths narrated by Harith in Shiite and Sunni sources. He narrated hadiths from Imam Ali (a), 'Abd Allah b. Mas'ud and Zayd b. Thabit, and many people narrated hadiths from him. Al-Dhahabi mentioned Harith as 'Allama (a person who has extensive knowledge), faqih, imam (religious leader), and kathir al-'ilm (a person who has a great deal of knowledge).

Biography

Lineage

His name is al-Harith b. 'Abd Allah b. Ka'b.[1] His name is also mentioned as al-Harth.[2] In some sources, his father is said to be 'Ubayd.[3]

Harith is attributed to the Hawth branch of the Hamdan tribe.[4] Some people took him to be Kharafi or Kharifi,[5] but it seems to be distortion of al-Hawthi.[6] The Hamdan tribe was a tribe in Yemen that moved to Kufa after it was founded in 17/638 and resided there.[7] Thus there is no information about al-Harith's life before this period.

Teknonym

Al-Harith's teknonym was Abu al-Zuhayr,[8] and since he could only see with one eye, he came to be known as "al-A'war"[9] (one-eyed). In some sources, al-Harith al-A'war is mentioned without mentioning his father. This led to an ambiguity between al-Harith al-A'war referring to al-Harith b. Qays, al-Harith b. 'Abd Allah or al-Harith b. Ghayth, although it probably refers to al-Harith b. 'Abd Allah al-A'war.[10]

Children

There is no precise information about Harith's household and children. Ibn 'Asakir[11] cited al-Waqidi as mentioning someone called 'Abd al-Rahman b. al-Harith b. 'Abd Allah al-Hamdani al-Kufi who attended some conquests in 43/663 together with 'Abd al-Rahman b. Khalid b. al-Walid. Since he was an expert in accounting, he was in charge of the booties. He did not accept the share of the booties given to him. It seems that this person was al-Harith's son. The fact that he was an expert in accounting is evidence for this.

Sa'id b. 'Amr (al-Harith's nephew) narrated hadiths from al-Harith.[12] One of his grandsons, called "al-Harith b. Muhammad b. al-Harith" was a Shiite narrator of hadiths.[13] Baha' al-Din al-'Amili and his father were from the progeny of al-Harith, and this is why they were also called al-Harithi and al-Hamdani.

Death

Al-Harith al-A'war died in 65/684 in the period of 'Abd Allah b. Zubayr in Kufa.[14] According to Harith's will, 'Abd Allah b. Yazid al-Khatmi (ibn Zubayr's agent in Kufa) said funeral prayer on his corpse.[15] It might show that Harith advocated Zubayris in opposition to the Umayyads.

Scholarly Significance

Al-Dhahabi[16] mentioned al-Harith as al-'allama, faqih, imam, and kathir al-'ilm.[17] Al-Harith is said to be an expert in accounting and the division of heritage among heirs.[18] He was admired for his keen memory.[19] According to al-Ya'qubi,[20] he was a knowledgeable companion of 'Ali (a), and according to Ibn Sirin, he was one of the five scholars and jurist of Kufa.[21] He is also known as a companion of 'Abd Allah b. Mas'ud.[22]

In the Hadith Science

Al-Harith narrated hadiths from Imam 'Ali (a), 'Abd Allah b. Mas'ud, and Zayd b. Thabit.[23] Al-Shaykh al-Tusi[24] mentioned al-Harith as a companion of Imam al-Hasan (a). There is hadith cited in Tafsir Furat al-Kufi[25] in which al-Harith narrated a hadith from Imam al-Husayn (a).

Abu Ishaq al-Sabi'i al-Hamdani, Dahhak b. Muzahim, 'Amir al-Sha'bi, 'Ata' b. Abi Ribah, and Sa'id b. 'Amr (al-Harith's nephew) narrated hadiths from him.[26] According to Sunni sources, Imam al-Hasan (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a) asked al-Harith al-A'war about their father's hadiths.[27] Ibn Shadhan[28] criticized these reports. Ibn Sa'd[29] mentioned al-Harith in the first generation of Tabi'in in Kufa.

Hadith Narrators

There are many hadiths narrated by al-Harith in Shiite and Sunni sources. These hadiths, which are usually narrations from Imam 'Ali (a), involve issues of beliefs, jurisprudence, exegesis of the Qur'an and moral conducts. Mudarrisi Tabataba'i[30] has provided a list of sources in which al-Harith's hadiths are cited. In addition to Musnad Ahmad b. Hanbal and Sunan al-Darimi, his hadiths are cited in four of the six main Sunni sources of hadiths.[31]

The most important person who narrates hadiths from al-Harith al-A'war is Abu Ishaq al-Subay'i. According to Ahmad b. Hanbal, Abu Ishaq married al-Harith's widow after his death, and he could thus have access to al-Harith's manuscripts of hadiths.[32] Thus according to Sunni sources, Abu Ishaq only heard four hadiths from al-Harith in person,[33] and cited the rest from his writings,[34] as are narrations of Khilas b. 'Amr al-Hajari[35] and 'Abd al-A'la b. 'Amir al-Tha'labi[36] from Imam 'Ali (a) considered to be citations from al-Harith's books.[37] In a number of hadiths, Abu Ishaq al-Subay'i indirectly narrated hadiths from al-Harith, which shows that he heard them from their intermediaries in person, rather than citing al-Harith's book.[38] The chain of narration consisting of Abu Ishaq from al-Harith from Imam 'Ali (a) is so well-known that it was used and faked by some hadith forgers, especially the advocates of 'Uthman b. 'Affan in their debates with Shias.[39]

In addition to al-Subay'i, many other narrators heard Imam 'Ali's (a) hadiths from al-Harith, including Ibrahim b. Yazid al-Nakha'i and Sa'id b. Firuz Abu l-Bakhtari.[40]

In the views of Biographers

According to many Sunni sources of 'ilm al-rijal, al-Harith was a reliable narrator of hadiths,[41] but some of them cast doubts on his reliability.[42]

The most important ground for doubts about al-Harith's reliability were remarks by 'Amir b. Sharahil al-Sha'bi, one of the Tabi'un contemporary with al-Harith who narrated hadiths from al-Harith but emphasized that al-Harith was a liar.[43] It is said that al-Bukhari and Muslim b. al-Hajjaj did not cite al-Harith's hadiths because of al-Sha'bi's remarks.[44] Some people have justified al-Sha'bi's remarks despite his narration of hadiths from al-Harith by saying that al-Harith was not a liar with respect to the narration of hadiths; rather he had "false beliefs"[45] or lied in his daily life while he was truthful in the narration of hadiths[46] or that he only told lies unintentionally.[47] It is worth noting that al-Sha'bi was an advocate of 'Uthman and an opponent of Imam 'Ali's (a) imamate.[48]

Ibn 'Abd al-Barr[49] stated that no lies have been reported from al-Harith, but he was reproached because of his strong love for Imam 'Ali (a) and preference of the Imam (a) to other caliphs, and this is why al-Sha'bi called him a liar, because al-Sha'bi preferred Abu Bakr b. Abi Quhafa over other caliphs and considered him the first person who converted to Islam and believed in the Prophet (s).

'Abd al-'Aziz b. Muhammad al-Husayni al-Ghumari, a contemporary scholar from Morocco, wrote two books demonstrating the reliability of al-Harith al-A'war and replying to objections in this regard: al-Bahith 'an 'ilal al-ta'n fi l-Harith (Qom 1420/1999) and Bayan nakth al-nakith al-muta'addi bi-tad'if al-Harith (Qom 1420/1999).

Scholarly Activities

Learning of the Qur'an

There are unclear remarks by al-Harith with respect to the learning of the Qur'an, such as the following: "I learned the Qur'an within three years and learned the revelation within two years"[50] or in response to someone who told him that he had learned the Qur'an in two years: "[learning] the Qur'an is easy; [learning] the revelation is more difficult".[51] Since these remarks are unclear, they are discussed and interpreted in books concerning rare and strange hadiths. Some people take the Qur'an in his remarks to refer to the recitation of the Qur'an and the revelation to refer to its transcription,[52] but Shushtari[53] took the revelation to refer to the exegesis of the Qur'an and its occasions of revelation, and al-Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin[54] took the revelation to refer to hadiths.

Transcription of Sermons and Hadiths

Al-Harith al-A'war transcribed hadiths and sermons by Imam 'Ali (a).[55] According to Shushtari,[56] he was the first person who collected Imam 'Ali's (a) sermons. On one account, Imam 'Ali (a) encouraged al-Harith to purchase some papers on which he later wrote many hadiths by the Imam (a).[57]

Attributed Works

  • Sahifat al-Harith: some sources, in which al-Harith was characterized as an author of some books,[58] refer to Sahifat al-Harith (al-Harith's book).[59]
  • Kitab al-masa'il allati akhbar biha Amir al-Mu'minin al-Yahudi: it is attributed to al-Harith. According to al-Shaykh al-Tusi,[60] 'Amr b. Maymun cited the contents of this book from Abu Ishaq al-Subay'i from al-Harith from Imam 'Ali (a). This essay is cited by al-Shaykh al-Saduq in his book, al-Khisal,[61] with a different chain of narration. The essay contains the story of the head of Jews asking questions from Imam 'Ali (a) concerning whether he was the Prophet's (s) successor. Imam 'Ali (a) proved that he was the Prophet's (s) successor as well as its conditions and stages.[62]

Political Activities

Relation with Imam 'Ali (a)

Al-Harith was a close companion of Imam 'Ali (a)[63] and one of the first people who pledged their allegiance to him in Medina.[64] Imam 'Ali (a) mentioned him as one of his reliable companions.[65] Ibn Qutayba al-Dinawari[66] mentioned al-Harith at the top of his list of Shias. He is also mentioned as Imam 'Ali's (a) flag holder.[67] It is also said that when Imam 'Ali (a) wanted to gather his army, he asked al-Harith to call them.[68]

Al-Harith had such a special love for Imam 'Ali (a)[69] that Ibn Hibban took him to be a radical Shia.[70] In Shiite sources, a dialogue between al-Harith and Imam 'Ali (a) is mentioned in this regard.[71] According to a hadith, Harith expressed his love for Imam 'Ali (a) and the Imam replied: "a person who loves me will see me at the time of their death the way they love to see me, and a person who hates me will see me at the time of their death the way they hate me".[72] Al-Sayyid Isma'il b. Muhammad al-Himyari composed a poem regarding this.[73] This hadith and poems by al-Sayyid al-Himyari are very well-known among Shias. They are appealed to in order to show that every person will meet Imam 'Ali (a) at the time of their death.[74]

In the Period of 'Uthman

During the caliphate of 'Uthman b. 'Affan (23-35/644-656), al-Harith ran extensive political campaigns. He was a member of the Qurra' group (reciters of the Qur'an), led by Malik al-Ashtar al-Nakha'i, who opposed Sa'id b. al-'As ('Uthman's agent in Kufa).[75] They rioted against Sa'id b. al-'As; they went to Medina and asked 'Uthman to dismiss him.[76] Because of these oppositions, 'Uthman exiled them to Syria.[77] When riots leading to 'Uthman's murder grew tense, Harith was in Medina.[78]

Notes

  1. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 168.
  2. Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, vol. 1, p. 97, 107, 133, 464; Shāfiʿī, al-Umm, vol. 7, p. 14; Muslim b. Ḥajjāj, al-Kunā wa al-asmāʾ, p. 116; Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 3, p. 11-13.
  3. Bukhārī, Tārīkh al-ṣaghīr, vol. 1, p. 184; Bukhārī, Tārīkh al-kabīr, vol. 1, part 2, p. 273; Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl, vol. 3, p. 78.
  4. Ibn Kalbī, Nasab al-muʿid wa Yaman al-kabīr, vol. 2, p. 251; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 168; Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 3, p. 14; Bukhārī, Tārīkh al-ṣaghīr, vol. 1, p. 184; Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 5, p. 245.
  5. Bukhārī, Tārīkh al-kabīr, vol. 1, part 2, p. 273; Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl, vol. 3, p. 73; Samʿānī, al-Ansāb, vol. 2, p. 305; Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 5, p. 244.
  6. Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 3, p. 11.
  7. Samʿānī, al-Ansāb, vol. 5, p. 647; Sāmi Nashār, Nashʾat al-fikr al-falsafī, vol. 3, p. 217.
  8. Yaḥyā b. Muʿīn, Tārīkh Yaḥyā b. Muʿīn, vol. 1, p. 218; Bukhārī, Tārīkh al-kabīr, vol. 2, p. 273; Muslim b. Ḥajjāj, al-Kunā wa al-asmāʾ, p. 116.
  9. Samʿānī, al-Ansāb, vol. 1, p. 192.
  10. Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 17, p. 50-60; Ḥillī, Khulāṣat al-aqwāl, p. 122-123; Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 3, p. 13; Tafrishī, Naqd al-rijāl, vol. 1, p. 388-389; Quhpāʾie, Majmaʿ al-rijāl, vol. 2, p. 68.
  11. Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 34, p. 265.
  12. Dāraquṭnī, al-ʿIlal al-wārida, vol.3, p. 137; Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 5, p. 245.
  13. Ibn Basṭām, Ṭib al-aʾimma, p. 54; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 59, p. 122.
  14. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 169; Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 3, p. 297.
  15. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 169; Bukhārī, Tārīkh al-ṣaghīr, vol. 1, p. 183.
  16. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 4, p. 152; Dhahabī, Mīzān al-iʿtidāl, vol. 1, p. 437.
  17. Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 5, p. 252.
  18. Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 24, p. 100; Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 5, p. 249, 252.
  19. Ibn Shāhin, Tārīkh asmāʾ al-thiqāt, p. 71-72.
  20. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 214.
  21. Muḥammad b. Khalaf Wakiʿ, Akhbār al-quḍāt, p. 380; Ibn ʿUday, al-Kāmil fī al-ḍuʿafāʾ al-rajul, vol. 2, p. 186; Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 5, p. 252.
  22. Yaḥyā b. Muʿīn, Tārīkh Yaḥyā b. Muʿīn, vol. 1, p. 220; Bukhārī, Tārīkh al-ṣaghīr, vol. 1, p. 176; Dhahabī, Mīzān al-iʿtidāl, vol. 1, p. 437.
  23. Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 5, p. 245.
  24. Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 94.
  25. Furāt al-Kūfī, Tafsīr furāt al-kūfī, p. 563.
  26. Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 5, p. 245.
  27. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 168; Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl, vol. 3, p. 79; Sahmī, Tārīkh-i Jurjān, p. 559.
  28. Ibn Shādhān, Īḍāḥ, p. 468-470.
  29. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 168.
  30. Mudarrisī Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Tradition and survival, vol. 1, p. 46-57.
  31. Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 5, p. 253; Mudarrisī Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Tradition and survival, vol. 1, p. 46-57.
  32. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 5, p. 398; Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām wa wafayāt al-mashāhīr wa l-aʿlām, vol. 3, p. 474.
  33. Bukhārī, Tārīkh al-ṣaghīr, vol. 1, p. 184; Sulaymān b. Ashʿath, Suʾālāt Abī ʿUbayd al-Ājurī, p. 31; Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl, vol. 1, p. 132, 148.
  34. ʿIjlī, Maʿārifat al-thiqāt, vol. 2, p. 179; Yusuf Uzbak, Musnad ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, vol. 1, p. 305, 428.
  35. Yusuf Uzbak, Musnad ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, vol. 2, p. 849-863.
  36. Yusuf Uzbak, Musnad ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, vol. 5, p. 1967-1976.
  37. Sulaymān b. Ashʿath, Suʾālāt Abī ʿUbayd al-Ājurī, vol. 2, p. 145; Ibn Ḥanbal, al-Jāmʿ fi l-ʿIlal wa maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. ?; Aqīlī, Kitāb al-ḍuʿafā al-kabīr, sefr 3, p. 58; Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl, vol. 6, p. 26.
  38. Shāfiʿī, al-Umm, vol. 7, p. 199; Ṣanʿānī, al-Muṣannaf, vol. 4, p. 256, 282; Aqīlī, Kitāb al-ḍuʿafā al-kabīr, sefr 4, p. 11.
  39. Mudarrisī Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Tradition and survival, vol. 1, p. 5758.
  40. Yusuf Uzbak, Musnad ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, vol. 1, p. 305-432.
  41. Yaḥyā b. Muʿīn, Tārīkh Yaḥyā b. Muʿīn, vol. 1, p. 265; Yaḥyā b. Muʿīn, Tārīkh ʿUthmān b. Saʿīd Darmī, p. 90-91; ʿIjlī, Maʿārifat al-thiqāt, vol. 1, p. 278; Ibn Shāhin, Tārīkh asmāʾ al-thiqāt, p. 71-72.
  42. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 168; Bukhārī, Kitāb al-ḍuʿafā al-ṣaghīr, p. 32; Nasā'ī, al-Ḍuʿafā wa al-matrūkūn, p. 77; Abūzurʿa Rāzī, Kitāb al-ḍuʿafā, p. 606; Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl, vol. 1, p. 78-79; Dāraqutnī, al-ḍuʿafā wa al-mutirʾkūn, p. 153; Ibn al-Jawzī, Kitāb al-ḍuʿafā wa al-matrūkīn, vol. 1, p. 181-182.
  43. Bukhārī, Tārīkh al-Kabīr, vol. 3, part 2, p. 482; Bukhārī, Tārīkh al-ṣaghīr, vol. 1, p. 183-184; Aqīlī, Kitāb al-ḍuʿafā al-kabīr, sefr 1, p. 208; Dhahabī, Mīzān al-iʿtidāl, vol. 1, p. 435.
  44. Ibn Khalkān, Wafayāt al-aʿyān, vol. 2, p. 339.
  45. Ibn Shāhin, Tārīkh asmāʾ al-thiqāt, p. 72; Sahmī, Tārīkh-i Jurjān, p. 200.
  46. Khaṭīb ʿAmrī, al-Ikmāl fī asmāʾ al-rijāl, p. 179.
  47. Dhahabī, Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 4, p. 153.
  48. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 89; Ṭabarī, al-Mustarshid fī imāmat Amīr al-Muʾminīn ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, p. 183-184; Mufīd, al-Fuṣūl al-mukhtara, p. 216-217.
  49. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Jāmiʿ bayān al-ʿilm wa faḍlihi wa ma yanbaghī fī riwāyatihi wa ḥamlihi, vol. 2, p. 387.
  50. Muslim b. Ḥajjāj, al-Jāmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ, vol. 1, p. 15; Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 5, p. 247.
  51. Muslim b. Ḥajjāj, al-Jāmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ, vol. 1, p. 14-15.
  52. Zamakhsharī, al-Fāʾiq fī gharīb al-ḥadīth, vol. 3, p. 90; Ibn Athīr, al-Nihāya fī gharīb al-ḥadīth wa al-athar, under the word "Wahy"; Nawawī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Muslim bi sharḥ al-Nawawī, vol. 1, p. 99.
  53. Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 3, p. 40.
  54. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 4, p. 367.
  55. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 141-142; Ṣadūq, al-Tawḥīd, p. 31-34.
  56. Shūshtarī, Bahj al-ṣabāgha fī sharḥ Nahj al-balāgha, vol. 1, p. 6.
  57. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, p. ?
  58. Ibn Ḥanbal, al-Jāmʿ fi l-ʿIlal wa maʿrifat al-rijāl, vol. 2, p. 257; Aqīlī, Kitāb al-ḍuʿafā al-kabīr, sefr 3, p. 58; Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl, vol. 6, p. 26.
  59. Sulaymān b. Ashʿath, Suʾālāt Abī ʿUbayd, vol. 2, p. 145.
  60. Ṭūsī, Fihrist kutub al-Shīʿa wa uṣūlihim, p. 319.
  61. Ṣadūq, al-Khiṣāl, vol. 2, p. 364-382.
  62. Mudarrisī Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Tradition and survival, vol. 1, p. 59.
  63. Barqī, Kitāb al-Rijāl, p. 4; Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 60.
  64. Mufīd, al-Jumal wa al-nuṣra, p. 109.
  65. Ibn Ṭāwūs, Kashf al-maḥajja li-thamart al-muhja, p. 174.
  66. Ibn Qutayba al-Dīnawarī, al-Maʿārif, p. 624.
  67. Sahmī, Tārīkh-i Jurjān, p. 200; Khwārizmī, al-Manāqib, p. 89.
  68. Naṣr b. Muzāhim, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 121, 143; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 205, 344; Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 2, p. 544.
  69. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Jāmiʿ bayān al-ʿilm, vol. 2, p. 387.
  70. Ibn Ḥabbān, al-Majrūḥīn min al-muḥaddithīn, vol. 1, p. 222.
  71. Mufīd, Kitāb al-amālī, p. 37; Ṭūsī, al-Amālī, p. 625-627.
  72. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 88-89; Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 3, p. 258; Ṣadūq, al-Khiṣāl, vol. 1, p. 334-335; Mufīd, Kitāb al-amālī, p. 271; Ṭūsī, al-Amālī, p. 34, 48; Quṭb al-Rāwandī, al-Daʿawāt, p. 249.
  73. Ḥimyarī, Dīwān, p. 327-328; Mufīd, Kitāb al-amālī, p. 7; Ṭūsī, al-Amālī, p. 627; Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balagha, vol. 1, p. 299.
  74. Mufīd, Awāʾil al-maqālāt, p. 73-74; Sharīf al-Murtaḍā, Rasāʾil Sharīf al-Murtaḍā, vol. 3, p. 133-134; Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balagha, vol. 1, p. 299; Ḥillī, al-Mūkhtaṣar, p. 13-14.
  75. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 5, p. 150.
  76. Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 2, p. 386; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 5, p. 32-33.
  77. Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 2, p. 386; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 5, p. 154-155.
  78. Mufīd, al-Jumal wa al-nuṣra li sayyid al-ʿitra fī ḥarb al-Baṣra, p. 109.

References

  • Aqīlī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar. Kitāb al-ḍuʿafā al-kabīr. Edited by ʿAbd al-Muʿṭī Amīn Qalʿajī. Beirut: 1418 AH.
  • Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal. Musnad al-Imām Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal. Beirut: Dār Ṣādir, [n.d].
  • Abūzurʿa Rāzī, ʿAbayd Allah b. ʿAbd al-Karīm. Kitāb al-ḍuʿafā li Abūzurʿa Rāzī wa ajwibatihi alā asʿila al-burzaʿī. Abūzurʿa Rāzī wa juhūdihī fī al-sunna al-Nabawīyya. chapter 2. Medina: 1409 AH-1989.
  • Bukhārī, Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-. Tārīkh al-ṣaghīr. Edited by Maḥmūd Ibrāhīm Zāʾid. Beirut: 1406 AH/1986.
  • Barqī, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad. Kitāb al-Rijāl. Edited by Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥaddith Armawī. Tehran: 1342 AH.
  • Balādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Ansāb al-ashrāf. Edited by Maḥmūd Firdaws ʿAzm. Damascus: 1996-2000.
  • Dhahabī, Muḥammad b. al-Aḥmad al-. Tārīkh al-Islām wa wafayāt al-mashāhīr wa l-aʿlām. Edited by Bashār ʿAwād Maʿrūf. Beirut: 1424 AH.
  • Dhahabī, Muḥammad b. al-Aḥmad al-. Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ. Edited by Shuʿayb al-Arnaʾūt. Beirut: 1401-1409 AH.
  • Dhahabī, Muḥammad b. al-Aḥmad al-. Mīzān al-iʿtidāl. Edited by ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Bajāwī. Cairo: 1963-1964.
  • Dāraquṭnī, ʿAlī b. ʿUmar al-. Al-ʿIlal al-wārida fī al-aḥādīth al-Nabawīyya. Riyadh: 1405 AH-1985.
  • Dāraqutnī, ʿAlī ʿUmar al-. Al-ḍuʿafā wa al-mutirʾkūn. Edited by Ṣubḥī Badrī Sāmiraʾī. Beirut: 1406 AH.
  • Furāt al-Kūfī, Abu l-Qāsim Furāt b. Ibrāhīm. Tafsīr furāt al-kūfī. Edited by Muḥammad Kāẓim Maḥmūdī. Tehran: 1410 AH.
  • Ḥillī, al-Ḥasan b. Yūsuf al-. Khulāṣat al-aqwāl fī maʿrifat al-rijāl. Edited by Jawād Qayyūmī. Qom: 1417 AH.
  • Ḥillī, Ḥasan b. Sulaymān al-. Al-Muḥtaḍar. Edited by ʿAlī Ashraf. [n.p]. Maktabat al-Ḥaydariyya, [n.d].
  • Ḥimyarī, Ismāʿīl b. Muḥammad. Dīwān. Edited by Shākir Hādī Shukr. Beirut: [n.d].
  • ʿIjlī, Aḥmad. Maʿārifat al-thiqāt. Edited by ʿAbd al-ʿAlīm ʿAbd al-ʿAzīm al-Bastawī. Medina: 1405 AH-1985.
  • Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd b. Hibat Allāh. Sharḥ Nahj al-balagha. Edited by Muḥammad Abu l-faḍl Ibrāhīm. Cairo: 1385-1387 AH-1965-1967.
  • Rāzī Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad. Al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl. Hyderabad Deccan: 1371-1373 AH-1952-1953.
  • Ibn Athīr, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Al-Nihāya fī gharīb al-ḥadīth wa al-athar. Edited by Maḥmūd Muḥammad Ṭanāḥī and Ṭāhir Aḥmad Zāwī. Beirut: 1383 AH-1963.
  • Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī, Aḥmad b. Aʿtham. Kitāb al-Futūḥ. Edited by ʿAlī Shīrī. Beirut: 1411 AH-1991.
  • Ibn Basṭām, Ḥusayn and Ibn Basṭām, ʿAbd Allāh. Ṭib al-aʾimma. Najaf: 1385.
  • Ibn al-Jawzī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī. Kitāb al-ḍuʿafā wa al-matrūkīn. Edited by Abu l-Fidāʾ ʿAbd Allāh al-Qāḍī. Beirut: 1406 AH.
  • Ibn Saʿd, Muḥammad. Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Ibn Ḥabbān, Muḥammad. Al-Majrūḥīn min al-muḥaddithīn wa al-ḍuʿafā wa al-matrūkīn. Edited by Maḥmūd Ibrāhīm Zāyid. Ḥalab: 1395-1396 AH-1975-1976.
  • Ibn Ḥanbal, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad. Al-Jāmʿ fi l-ʿIlal wa maʿrifat al-rijāl. Edited by Muḥammad Ḥisām Bayḍūn. Beirut: 1410 AH-1990.
  • Ibn Khalkān, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad. Wafayāt al-aʿyān wa ʾanbāʾ ʾabnāʾ al-zamān. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Ibn Shādhān, Faḍl. Īḍāḥ. Edited by Jalāl al-Dīn Ḥusayn Armawī. Tehran: 1363 Sh.
  • Ibn Shāhin, ʿUmar. Tārīkh asmāʾ al-thiqāt. Edited by Ṣubḥī Samirāʾī. Kuwait: 1404 AH-1984.
  • Ibn Shahrāshūb, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib. Edited by Yusuf Baqāʾī. Qom: 1385 Sh.
  • Ibn Ṭāwūs, ʿAlī b. Mūsā. Kashf al-maḥajja li-thamart al-muhja. Najaf: 1370 AH-1951.
  • Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd Allāh. Jāmiʿ bayān al-ʿilm wa faḍlihi wa ma yanbaghī fī riwāyatihi wa ḥamlihi. Beirut: 1418 AH-1997.
  • Ibn ʿUday, ʿAbd Allāh. Al-Kāmil fī al-ḍuʿafāʾ al-rajul. Edited by Suhayl Zakār. Beirut: 1409 AH-1988.
  • Ibn ʿAsākir, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan. Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq. Edited by ʿAlī Shīrī. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1415-1421 AH.
  • Ibn Kalbī, Hisham b. Muḥammad. Nasab al-muʿid wa Yaman al-kabīr. Edited by Maḥmūd Firdaws ʿAzm. Damascus: 1408 AH.
  • Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, Beirut: [n.d].
  • Khwārizmī, Muwaffaq b. Aḥmad al-. Al-Manāqib. Edited by Mālik Mahmūdī. Qom: 1414 AH.
  • Kashshī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl known as Rijāl al-Kashshī. Edited by Ḥasan Muṣṭafawī. Mashhad: 1348 Sh.
  • Khaṭīb ʿAmrī, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh. Al-Ikmāl fī asmāʾ al-rijāl. Edited by Muḥammad ʿAbd Allṣh Anṣārī. Qom: Muʾassisa Ahl al-Bayt (a), [n.d].
  • Mamaqānī, ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḥasan. Tanqīḥ al-maqāl fī ʿilm al-rijāl. Edited by Muḥyi al-Dīn al-Mamaqānī. Qom: 1423 AH.
  • Mizzī, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-. Tahdhīb al-kamāl fī ʾasmāʾ al-rijāl. volume 5. Edited by Bashār ʿAwād Maʿrūf. Beirut: 1405 AH.
  • Masʿūdī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn al-. Murūj al-dhahab wa maʿadin al-jawhar. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Muslim b. Ḥajjāj. Al-Jāmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, [n.d].
  • Muslim b. Ḥajjāj. Al-Kunā wa al-asmāʾ. Damascus: 1404 AH.
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Awāʾil al-maqālāt fī al-madhāhib wa al-mukhtārāt. Edited by Ibrāhīm Anṣārī. Beirut: 1414 AH.
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Jumal wa al-nuṣra li sayyid al-ʿitra fī ḥarb al-Baṣra. Edited by ʿAlī Mīrsharīfī. Qom: 1374 Sh.
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Fuṣūl al-mukhtara. Edited by Ibrāhīm Anṣārī. Beirut: 1414 AH.
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Kitāb al-amālī. Edited by Ḥusayn Ustād Walī and ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Qom: 1403 AH.
  • Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār al-jāmiʿa li-durar akhbār al-aʾimmat al-aṭhār. volume 59. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Muḥammad b. Khalaf Wakiʿ. Akhbār al-ḍudāt. Edited by Saʿīd Muḥammad al-Laḥām. Beirut: 1422 AH.
  • Nasā'ī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī. Al-Ḍuʿafā wa al-matrūkūn. Edited by Būrān Ḍanāwī and Kamāl Yusuf Ḥūt. Beirut: 1407 AH.
  • Mudarrisī Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Ḥusayn. Tradition and survival: a bibliographical survey of early shiʿite literature. Oxford: 2003.
  • Nawawī, Yaḥyā b. Sharaf. Ṣaḥīḥ al-Muslim bi sharḥ al-Nawawī. Beirut: 1407 AH.
  • Naṣr b. Muzāhim Minqarī. Waqʿat Ṣiffīn. Edited by ʿAbd al-Salām Muḥammad Hārūn. Cairo: 1382 AH.
  • Quṭb al-Rāwandī, Saʿīd b. Hibat Allāh. Kitāb sulwat al-ḥazīn al-maʿrūf bi al-Daʿawāt. Qom: 1407 AH.
  • Quhpāʾie, ʿInāyat Allāh. Majmaʿ al-rijāl. Edited by Ḍīyāʾ al-Dīn ʿAllāma Iṣfahānī. Isfahan: 1384-1387 Sh.
  • Samʿānī, ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Muḥammad. al-. Al-Ansāb. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Sharīf al-Murtaḍā, ʿAlī b. Ḥusayn al-. Rasāʾil Sharīf al-Murtaḍā. Edited by Sayyid Mahdī Rajāʾī. Risāla 32. Qom: 1405-1410 AH.
  • Sāmi Nashār, ʿAlī. Nashʾat al-fikr al-falsafī fī al-Islām. volume 3. Cairo: 1996.
  • Sulaymān b. Ashʿath, Abū Dāwūd. Risāla Abī Dāwūd ilā ahl-i Makka fī waṣf-i sunanihi. Edited by Muḥammad b. Luṭfī Ṣabbāgh. Beirut: 1417 AH.
  • Sulaymān b. Ashʿath, Abū Dāwūd. Suʾālāt Abī ʿUbayd al-Ājurī Abā Dāwūd Sulaymān b. Ashʿath al-Sijistānī. Edited by ʿAbd al-ʿAlī Umm ʿAbd al-ʿAzīm Bastawī. Beirut: 1417 AH-1997.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Tawḥīd. Printed by Hāshim Ḥusaynī Tehrānī. Qom: 1357 Sh.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Khiṣāl. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Qom: 1362 Sh.
  • Sahmī, Ḥamzat b. Yusuf. Tārīkh-i Jurjān. Edited by Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Muʿīd Khān. Hyderabad Deccan: 1387 AH.
  • Shāfiʿī, Muḥammad b. Idrīs. Al-Umm. Beirut: 1403 AH.
  • Shūshtarī, Muḥammad Taqī. Bahj al-ṣabāgha fī sharḥ Nahj al-balāgha. volume 1. Tehrann: Maktabat al-Ṣadr, [n.d].
  • Shūshtarī, Muḥammad Taqī. Qāmūs al-rijāl. Qom: 1410-1424 AH.
  • Ṣanʿānī, ʿAbd al-Razzāq b. Humām. Al-Muṣannaf. Edited by Ḥabīb al-Raḥmān Aʿzamī. Beirut: 1403 AH.
  • Tafrishī, Muṣṭafā b. Ḥusayn al-. Naqd al-rijāl. Qom: 1418 AH.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Al-Muntakhab min kitāb al-dhayl al-mudhayyal min tārīkh al-ṣaḥāba wa al-tābiʿīn. Edited by Muḥammad Abu l-faḍl Ibrāhīm. volume 11. Cairo: 1977.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Al-Mustarshid fī imāmat Amīr al-Muʾminīn ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib. Edited by Aḥmad Maḥmūdī. Qom:
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Al-Amālī. Qom: 1414 AH.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥaasn al-. Al-Rijāl. Edited by Jawād Qayyūmī al-Iṣfahānī. Qom: 1415 AH.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Fihrist kutub al-Shīʿa wa uṣūlihim wa asmāʾ al-muṣannifīn wa aṣḥāb al-uṣūl. Edited by ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Ṭabāṭabāʾī. Qom: 1420 AH.
  • Yusuf Uzbak. Musnad ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib raḍī Allāh ʿanhu. Kharaja aḥādīthuhū ʿAlī Riḍā b. ʿAbd Allāh. Damascus: 1416 AH-1995.
  • Yaʿqūbī, Aḥmad b. Abī Yaʿqūb al-. Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī. [n.p]. [n.d].
  • Yaḥyā b. Muʿīn. Tārīkh ʿUthmān b. Saʿīd al-Dārmī ʿan Zakarīyā Yaḥyā b. Muʿīn fī tajrīḥ al-ruwāt wa taʿdīlihim. Edited by Aḥmad Muḥammad Nūrsayf. Damascus: Dār al-Maʾmūn li-Turāth, [n.d].
  • Yaḥyā b. Muʿīn. Tārīkh Yaḥyā b. Muʿīn; Riwāyat ʿAbbās b. Muḥammad b. Ḥātam Dawrī. Edited by ʿAbd Allāh Aḥmad Ḥasan. Beirut: [n.d].
  • Zamakhsharī, Maḥmūd b. ʿUmar al-. Al-Fāʾiq fī gharīb al-ḥadīth. Beirut: 1417 AH.