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Hani b. 'Urwa

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Companion of Imam (a)
Hani b. 'Urwa
Hani b. 'Urwah.jpg
The tomb of Hani b. 'Urwa, Kufa, Iraq
Companion of Imam 'Ali (a), Imam al-Hasan (a), Imam al-Husayn (a)
Lineage Madhhij tribe
Place(s) of Residence Kufa
Death/Martyrdom Dhu l-Hijja 9, 60/September 10, 680
Cause of
Death/Martyrdom
Execution by the order of 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad
Burial Place Kufa, Iraq
Activities Participating in the Battles of Imam 'Ali (a), One of the supporters of Muslim b. 'Aqil

Hānī b. ʿUrwa al-Murādī (Arabic: هاني بن عروة المرادي) (d. 60/680) is one of the greatest and closest companions of Imam 'Ali (a). He participated in the battles of Jamal and Siffin and was known as one of the important people in Hujr b. 'Adi's uprising against Ziyad b. Abih.[1] He opposed Mu'awiya when he was asking allegiance of the people of Kufa for Yazid's caliphate. His house was the center of political and military activities since 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad entered Kufa. He played a very significant role in Muslim b. 'Aqil's uprising. On Dhu l-Hijja 8, 60/680, after the martyrdom of Muslim b. 'Aqil and by the order of 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad he was beheaded.

Imam al-Husayn (a) was informed of his martyrdom when he was in the middle of the way towards Kufa. Imam al-Husayn (a) cried on his demise, recited the al-Istirja' verse and asked for Allah's mercy upon him several times. Hani was buried alongside the Dar al-Imara (municipality) of Kufa, where it is now a significant and famous shrine for Shi'a Muslims.

Lineage

He was the head and leader of Banu Murad[2] in Madhhij tribe[3], and he had a high social position among people of Kufa.[4]

Hani was very supportive to his tribe; for example when Kathir b. Shihab al-Madhhiji, the governor of Khorasan province, was charged with embezzlement and fled to Kufa, Hani sheltered him and hence Mu'awiya rebuked him.[5]

Before Muslim b. 'Aqil Came to Kufa

There is little information about this period of his life.

He participated in the battles of Jamal[6] and Siffin[7] and Imam 'Ali (a) used to consult with him in Siffin. When Imam 'Ali (a) dismissed Ash'ath b. Qays al-Kindi from leading the tribes Rabi'a and Kinda, Hani suggested that Imam 'Ali should appoint a person of an equal social rank for the position.[8]

He opposed Mu'awiya when he was forcing people of Kufa ally Yazid's caliphate; he expressed his surprise about Mu'awiya's action. He frequently publicized the vices of Yazid. Hani was one of the key figures in Hujr b. 'Adi's uprising against Ibn Ziyad.[9]

Role in Muslim b. 'Aqil's Uprising

After Muslim b. 'Aqil was informed about the arrival of 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad and his threats, he moved from al-Mukhtar al-Thaqafi's house to Hani's.[10]

According to a historical report, Hani was not very happy to host Muslim b. 'Aqil in his house at the beginning, but upon the arrival of Muslim b. 'Aqil in his house, he fully defended him.[11] Hani's house was chosen because he was socially higher than al-Mukhtar and his house was considered the center of political and military activities after the arrival of 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad, and Shi'as would frequently go there.[12]

Sharik b. al-A'war, who was one of Imam 'Ali's (a) close companions,[13] a great Shi'a from Basra and had arrived Kufa with 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad, was one of Hani's friends.[14] When he got sick and entered Hani's house, he encouraged Hani to support Muslim b. 'Aqil. They planned to assassinate 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad[15] when he was going to visit Him,[16] however, the plan was canceled because Hani did not want his guest killed in his house.[17]

Arrest

'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad appointed one of his Syrian slaves to watch Hani's house.[18] Because Hani did not go to visit 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad, Muhammad b. al-Ash'ath, Asma' b. Kharija,[19] and 'Amr b. al-Hajjaj al-Zubaydi,[20] who were Hani's relatives and friends, took him to Dar al-Imara by deceit and guile. This made a gap between Hani and Muslim b. 'Aqil which later led to the defeat of Muslim b. 'Aqil's uprising.

In 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad's court, Hani refused to hand Muslim b. 'Aqil over to 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad so he was tortured in a way that his nose broke and then he was imprisoned.[21]

When a group of the Madhhij tribe heard that Hani was killed, they gathered in front of Dar al-Imara, but they scattered by the false testimony of Shurayh who witnessed "Hani is alive".

The darih of Hani b. 'Urwa

Martyrdom

According to al-Mas'udi's quotation,[22] whenever Hani called his tribe for help, 4,000 cavalries and 8,000 infantry would answer him, and when he called his allied tribes, 30,000 warriors would get prepared to help him; however, when he was going to his death, none of those warriors replied to his call.[23] On the Dhu l-Hijja 9, 60/September 10, 680, after the martyrdom of Muslim b. Aqil, Hani was taken handcuffed to the butchers' bazaar and was decapitated by 'Ubayd Allah's slave named Rushayd.[24] Imam 'Ali (a) had predicted his death earlier.[25]

'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad ordered Hani b. Abi Hayya al-Hamdani and al-Zubayr b. Arwaj to take Muslim b. 'Aqil and Hani's heads to Yazid who admired 'Ubayd Allah.[26]

Their bodies were pulled on the ground of Suq al-Kunasa[27] and then hung.[28]

Reaction of Imam al-Husayn (a) to His Martyrdom

The news of the martyrdom of Hani and Muslim b. 'Aqil reached Imam al-Husayn (a) in the middle of the way to Kufa. Imam (a) cried for their death and recited the al-Istirja' verse and asked for Allah's mercy upon them several times.[29]

Shrine

Hani was buried near Dar al-Imara of Kufa. Today his shrine is connected to the Mosque of Kufa and is to the north of the grave of Muslim b. 'Aqil.[30] His shrine is one of ziyarah sites of Shi'a. He has a ziyarah text narrated by Imams (a) in which he is addressed as the righteous servant of Allah and the companion of Imam 'Ali (a), Imam al-Hasan (a), and Imam al-Husayn (a).[31]

Notes

  1. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 5, p. 255.
  2. Tustarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl vol. 1, p. 490.
  3. Ibn Ḥazm, Jamharat ansāb al-ʿarab p. 406.
  4. Dīnawarī, al-Imāma wa l-sīyāsa, vol. 2, p. 4.
  5. Ziriklī, al-Aʿlām, vol. 8, p. 68.
  6. Ibn Aʿtham, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 5, p. 40.
  7. Naṣr b. Muzāhim, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 137.
  8. Naṣr b. Muzāhim, Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, p. 137.
  9. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 5, p. 255.
  10. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 336; Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 233; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 362; Ibn Aʿtham, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 5, p. 40; Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 3, p. 252; Ṭabrisī, Iʿlām al-warā, vol. 1, p. 438; Maqdisī, al-Bidaʾ wa tārīkh, vol. 6, p. 9.
  11. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 362; Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil, vol. 4, p. 25.
  12. Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 233; Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 97-98.
  13. Thaqafī, al-Ghārāt, vol. 2, p. 793.
  14. Thaqafī, al-Ghārāt, vol. 2, p. 793-794; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 337; Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 333-334.
  15. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 5, p. 255; Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 234-235; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 363; Ibn Aʿtham, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 5, p. 42-43; Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 98-99.
  16. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 5, p. 255; Dīnawarī, al-Imāma wa l-sīyāsa, vol. 2, p. 4; Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 243; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 363.
  17. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 5, p. 255; Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 234-235; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 363; Ibn Aʿtham, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 5, p. 42-43; Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 99.
  18. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 336-337; Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 235-236; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 348, 362; Ibn Aʿtham, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 5, p. 41-42; Mufīd, al-Irshād, p. 45-46.
  19. Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 236.
  20. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 349; Ibn Aʿtham, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 5, p. 49; Ibn al-Athīr al-Jazarī, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 4, p. 28; Ṭabrisī, Iʿlām al-warā, vol. 1, p. 440.
  21. Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 237-238; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 365-367; Ibn Aʿtham, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 5, p. 46-47; Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 2, p. 252.
  22. Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 3, p. 255.
  23. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 367; Ibn Aʿtham, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 5, p. 61; Tustarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 10, p. 493.
  24. Ṭabrisī, Iʿlām al-warā, vol. 1, p. 444; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 365-367; Ibn Aʿtham, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 5, p. 61; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 5, p. 122.
  25. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 7, p. 7.
  26. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 341-342; Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 240-241; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 380.
  27. Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 8, p. 157.
  28. Ibn Khaldūn, al-ʿIbar, vol. 3, p. 29.
  29. Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 240-241; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 5, p. 380.
  30. Burāqī Najafī, p. 84.
  31. Qummī, Mafātīḥ al-jinān, under ziyara of Hani b. 'Urwa.

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