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Day of Ashura' (events)

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The events of the Day of Ashura are the events happened for Imam al-Husayn (a) and his family, in the battle with the army of Yazid b. Mu'awiya led by 'Umar b. Sa'd on Muharram 10, 61/October 13, 680 in the land of Karbala which led to the martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a), his companions and his relatives. The rest of his caravan were also taken as captives.

Morning of 'Ashura

The old painting shows the battle field where the fight between Imam al-Husayn (a) and the Army of Yazid b. Mu'awiya happened.

In the morning of 'Ashura', Imam al-Husayn (a) performed Fajr prayer together with his companions.[1] Then, the Imam (a) arranged the lines of his forces which consisted of 32 horsemen and 40 foot soldiers.[2] He (a) assigned Zuhayr b. Qayn as the commander of the right wing and Habib b. Muzahir as the commander of the left wing and gave the standard of his army to his brother 'Abbas (a).[3]

By the order of Imam (a), forces stood in front of the tents[4] and set fire to the firewood and brushwood gathered in the moat to prevent the enemy from behind.[5]

At the other side of the battlefield, 'Umar b. Sa'd did his prayer and assigned the commanders of his army who were (according to the famous report) 30000 people.[6] He assigned 'Amr b. al-Hajjaj al-Zubaydi as the commander of the right wing, Shimr b. Dhi l-Jawshan, the commander of the left wing, 'Uzrat b. Qays al-Ahmasi, the commander of the horsemen and Shabath b. Rib'i as the commander of the foot soldiers.[7]

'Umar b. Sa'd also assigned 'Abd Allah b. Zuhayr al-Asadi as the commander of the people of Kufa, 'Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Sabra, as the commander of the tribes of Madhhij and Banu Asad. He also assigned Qays b. Ash'ath b. Qays as the commander of the tribes of Rabi'a and Kinda and assigned Hurr b. Yazid al-Riyahi as the commander of the tribes of Banu Tamim and Hamdan and gave the standard of his army to his slave Zuwayd (Durayd) and prepared them to fight against Imam al-Husayn (a).[8]

It has been reported that when the Imam (a) saw the multitude of enemy's army, he (a) raised his hands and said, "O God! You are my trust in every hardship and my hope in every difficulty. How much sadness exhausting the patience of the heart and there is no way to remove it. How much sadness in which our friends abandon us and the enemy gloats over that sadness of ours and due to my love towards You and not others I have brought You this petition and You have put solution in that and have made it easy for me. So, You are the Lord of every blessings and belong to You all the good and You are the end of every goal."[9]

From that morning or a bit later, some companions were watching from between the tents for approaching the enemy and some soldiers of the army of Kufa were killed there.[10]

Speeches of Imam al-Husayn (a) and his Companions

Before the beginning of the war, to have the final word said to the army of Kufa, Imam (a) got on his horse and went to the enemy's army with a group of his companions ahead of whom Burayr b. Khudayr was going. The Imam (a) told him, "O Burayr! Speak to them and advise them!"[11] Then, Burayr stood in front of the army of 'Umar b. Sa'd and advised them.[12]

Then, the Imam (a) stood in front of the army of the enemy and advised them to justice in a loud voice so that most soldiers of the army of 'Umar b. Sa'd hear him. He began with the praise of God and introduced himself that he (a) was the son of the Prophet's (s) daughter and 'Ali (a), caliph and cousin of the Prophet (s) and that Hamza, the Sayyid al-Shuhada, and Ja'far al-Tayyar were his uncles. He (a) then narrated a Hadith from the Prophet (s) saying, "al-Hasan (a) and al-Husayn (a) are masters of the youths in Paradise" and took alive companions of the Prophet (s), Jabir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansari, Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, Sahl b. Sa'd al-Sa'idi, Zayd b. Arqam and Anas b. Malik as witnesses.

During his speech, the Imam (a) addressed commanders of the army of Kufa, Shabath b. Rib'i, Hajjar b. Abjar, Qays b. Ash'ath b. Qays and Yazid b. Harith and reminded them of the letters they wrote with their exact sentences and they all denied them and asked the Imam (a) to surrender and he (a) answered, "No! By God I swear that I would never stretch the hand of humility towards them."[13]

After Imam's (a) speech, Zuhayr b. Qayn addressed the people from Kufa and spoke about Imam's (a) virtues and advised them.[14] In the middle of the speech of Imam (a), Shimr said that he did not understand anything from Imam's (a) speech and also replied to the speech of Zuhayr by obscenities.[15]

Imam's (a) Disapproval of Initiating the War

The army of 'Umar was preparing for the battle and Imam al-Husayn (a) ordered to set fire to the woods in the moat. Shimr b. Dhi l-Jawshan attacked the tents with a group of horsemen from behind but when they saw the moat and its fire, he swore at Imam (a).

Although Muslim b. 'Awsaja was close to him and showed readiness for shooting at Shimr, but Imam (a) said, "I do not want to be the beginner of the war."[16]

Repentance of Hurr b. Yazid al-Riyahi

In the morning of 'Ashura when Imam al-Husayn (a) called, "Is there any helper to help me?", Hurr b. Yazid al-Riyahi heard him (a) and he was touched by these words, and when he saw the people of Kufa serious for fighting Imam al-Husayn (a), left their army and joined the camp of Imam (a).[17] It is narrated that after the beginning of the battle, Hurr asked the Imam (a) to allow him to attack the army of Kufa before other companions of Imam (a) and Imam (a) allowed him. He did so and was martyred. It is said in some reports that Hurr was martyred in the middle of the day of 'Ashura.[18]

Beginning of War by 'Umar b. Sa'd

The war began when 'Umar b. Sa'd called his slave Durayd (Dhuwayd) and told him, "O Durayd, bring the standard forth!" Then 'Umar b. Sa'd shot an arrow and said, "Be witness before Amir ('Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad) that I was the first person who shot an arrow." Then, his companions began shooting arrows together.[19]

So, at the beginning of the war on the day of 'Ashura, attacks began collectively and during the first round of attacks many of the companions of Imam (a) were martyred. This attack is known as the first attack and according to some reports, up to fifty companions of Imam (a) were martyred in that attack. Then, companions of the Imam (a) went to the battle one by one or two by two and did not let anyone from the army of the enemy approach the Imam (a).[20]

Martyrdom of Muslim b. 'Awsaja

Main article: Muslim b. 'Awsaja

'Amr b. al-Hajjaj and his soldiers attacked the right wing of the army of Imam (a), but Imam's (a) companions stopped their progress. On their return, Imam's (a) companions shot arrows towards them and killed and injured some of them.[21]

After killing of some soldiers from the army of Kufa in one on one fights, 'Umar b. Sa'd ordered that no one should go to battle for one on one fight.[22]

Once again 'Amr b. al-Hajjaj and his soldiers attacked Imam's (a) companions and fought them for about an hour and had to retreat again. In that fight, Muslim b. 'Awsaja al-Asadi was martyred.[23] So, it was said that the first martyr among the companions of the Imam (a) was Muslim b. 'Awsaja.[24]

Battle of 'Abd Allah b. 'Umayr

Battle of Karbala painting by 'Abbas al-Musawi
Main article: 'Abd Allah b. 'Umayr

After shooting arrows, Yasar, the slave of Ziyad b. Abih and Salim, the slave of 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad came forth and asked for a combatant. Habib b. Muzahir and Burayr b. Khudayr wanted to go to the battle but the Imam (a) did not allow them. 'Abd Allah b, 'Umayr wanted to go and asked Imam (a) for permission and the Imam (a) accepted.

Shimr's Great Desire for Battle

After the attack of 'Amr b. al-Hajjaj, Shimr b. Dhi l-Jawshan together with the left wing of the army of 'Umar b. Sa'd attacked the left side of the army of the Imam (a) and faced with great resistance of Imam's (a) companions.[25]

Among the commanders of the army of Kufa, there were very few people showed such great desire for war like Shimr did. He did not even hide his determination for killing women and burning the tent of Imam al-Husayn (a) in front of him.[26]

All-out Attack

Before the noon on the day of 'Ashura, the enemy began an all-out attack on the army of Imam al-Husayn (a) and attacked the Imam (a) and his companions from every direction. Imam's (a) companions engaged in a fierce fight with them, and the horsemen among the companions of Imam (a) who were no more than 32, showed such a courage that made the great army of Kufa very tired so that 'Uzrat b. Qays, the commander of the horsemen of the army of 'Umar b. Sa'd had to ask him for help.[27]

'Umar b. Sa'd called for Husayn b. Numayr and sent him to 'Uzrat b. Qays with armored horses and 500 archers and when they reached near the Imam (a) and his companions, they began shooting arrows toward them.[28]

Companions of Imam (a) distributed among tents in groups of three and four and began defending the tents. They defended against anyone from the army of the enemy who attacked the tents and killed them with sword or shooting arrows at them. The incompetence of the army of 'Umar b. Sa'd in killing Imam (a) and his companions made 'Umar b. Sa'd order the destruction of the tents of Imam (a); so, they attacked the tents from every direction. In one of these attacks, Shimr and some of his soldiers from behind the tents reached the tents of Imam (a), and Zuhayr b. Qayn and ten other companions of the Imam (a) attacked them and moved them away.[29]

The war intensely continued until the mid-day.[30] Until then, many of the companions of Imam (a) were martyred. In those attacks, in addition to Muslim b. 'Awsaja, 'Abd Allah b. 'Umayr al-Kalbi was martyred in the left wing of the army by Hani b. Thubayt al-Hadrami and Bukayr b. Hay al-Taymi.[31] 'Amr b. Khalid al-Saydawi, Jabir b. Harith al-Salmani, Sa'd the slave of 'Amr b. Khalid and Majma' b. 'Abd Allah 'A'idhi and his son, 'A'idh b. Majma' were also martyred in the fights with the enemy.[32] Some other companions of Imam (a) who have been counted by some historians as fifty were also martyred during this time.[33]

Noon of 'Ashura

When the sun reached its peak at the noon of 'Ashura and the time for the Noon Prayer came, Abu Thumama al-Sa'idi reminded Imam (a) of the time of Prayer. Imam (a) raised his head and looked at the sky and while he (a) was praying for Abu Thumama, said, "Ask them (the army of Kufa) to give us time for the noon prayer."[34] Then, Husayn b. Tamim shouted that his (Imam's (a)) prayer would not be accepted. Habib b. Muzahir got angry and shouted, "Have you thought that the Prayer of the family of the Prophet (s) would not be accepted, and it is accepted from you donkey?!" Husayn, his relatives and soldiers around him got angry too and attacked Habib and fought him until he was martyred by Budayl b. Suraym and Husayn b. Tamim.[35]

Noon Prayer of 'Ashura

For the noon prayer of 'Ashura, Imam al-Husayn (a) and his companions got prepared. Imam (a) told Zuhayr b. Qayn and Sa'id b. 'Abd Allah al-Hanafi to stand in front of Imam (a) and about half of his companions to defend them against possible attacks of the enemy. When they began the Prayer,[36] the army of 'Umar b. Sa'd began attacking them and shooting arrows towards them, but Zuhayr and Sa'id stood against the attacks and prevented the arrows to reach the Imam (a) and other prayers.[37]

After the end of Prayer, Sa'id b. Abd Allah was martyred due to great injuries.[38]

After the Prayer, Zuhayr b. Qayn, Burayr b. Khudayr al-Hamdani, Nafi' b. Hilal al-Jamali, 'Abis b. Abi Shabib al-Shakiri, Hanzala b. Sa'd al-Shabami and others went to the battlefield one by one and were martyred.[39]

Afternoon of 'Ashura

Martyrdom of Imam's (a) Relatives

A "Parda-i Darwishi". The painting shows some views of the Battle of 'Ashura'

After the martyrdom of the companions of Imam al-Husayn (a), youths of his family came forth for the battle. The first one of Banu Hashim who asked him (a) for permission and was martyred was 'Ali al-Akbar (a).[40] After 'Ali al-Akbar (a) asked Imam (a) for permission, he went to the battlefield. In a prayer for him, Imam (a) considered him the most alike to the Prophet (s) than anyone.[41]

After the martyrdom of 'Ali al-Akbar (a), others from Banu Hashim including the sons of 'Aqil b. Abi Talib, 'Abd Allah b. Muslim b. 'Aqil, sons of Ja'far b. Abi Talib, 'Adi b. 'Abd Allah b. Ja'far al-Tayyar and also sons of Imam al-Hasan (a): Qasim b. al-Hasan (a) and his brother Abu Bakr and the brothers of 'Abbas b. 'Ali (a): 'Abd Allah, 'Uthman, Ja'far and others went to the battlefield one by one and were all martyred.[42]

However, 'Abbas b. 'Ali (a), the standard bearer of Imam al-Husayn (a) and the guard of the tents who also had the responsibility of bringing water was upon him, went to bring water and was martyred in the fight with the guards of the Euphrates.[43] It is reported that the last companion of Imam (a) who was martyred was Suwayd b. 'Amr al-Khath'ami.[44]

Imam al-Sajjad's (a) Will for Going to Battle

After all the companions and Banu Hashim were martyred, Imam al-Husayn (a) went to the battle. Seeing the hardship of his family, made Imam (a) very upset, so he (a) took a look around, but he (a) saw no help. Imam (a) looked at the slashed bodies of his companions fallen on the scorching soil of Karbala and addressed the army of Kufa and said,

"Is there anyone to defend the family of the Prophet (s)? And is there any believer in God among you who worries about us for the sake of God? Is there an assistant who assists us for the sake of God? Is there a helper who helps us for the sake of God?"[45]

No answer was heard from the people of Kufa.

Imam (a) turned to the bodies of martyrs and said,

"O Habib b. Muzahir! O Zuhayr b. Qayn! And O Muslim b. 'Awsaja! O you brave ones! And O you warriors of the day of misery! Why I call you, but you do not hear me and I summon you, but you do not answer me? You are asleep and I wish you get up from your sweet dream for these are the women of the family of the Prophet (s) and they do not have any help after you! Get up from sleep, O the generous and defend the family of the Prophet (s) against this offense!"

By hearing the voice of Imam (a), cries of the women went up. It is reported that at that time, as Imam al-Sajjad (a) heard the father, he (a) came out of the tent while he (a) was resting on a cane, but he (a) did not have power to carry a sword. Imam al-Husayn (a) saw him and called Umm Kulthum, "Take him back so that the earth would not be emptied from the sons of Muhammad (s)."[46]

Preparation of Imam al-Husayn (a) for the Battle

Imam al-Husayn (a) came to his tent and after advising his family to silence, said goodbye to his sisters, wives and his kids. They brought him a shirt and he (a) tore it up from some places, so that the army of Kufa do not steal it, and wore it under his other clothes and armor, but even this shirt was later stolen.[47] When Imam (a) saw his suckling baby crying out of thirst, he (a) took it and went near the battle field and shouted, "O people! If you do not have mercy on me, have mercy on this little suckling!" But they even did not show mercy on that little kid and Harmala b. Kahil al-Asadi, from the middle of the army, shot an arrow towards his throat and martyred him on the chest of his father.[48]

Battles of Imam (a) in the Afternoon of 'Ashura

Although Imam al-Husayn (a) was left alone after martyrdom of his companions and relatives, but for a while, no one from the army of Kufa came forth to fight him (a). Once, Imam (a) approached the water, they shot arrows toward his mouth and they have reported that when he (a) moved his horse towards the river, they blocked his way.[49] In spite of his loneliness and having deep wounds on his head and body, Imam (a) fought fearlessly.[50]

It is narrated from Humayd b. Muslim that, "I did not see any defeated person whose sons, relatives and companions been killed but despite that, he stands so firm, brave and daring. Foot soldiers rushed at him from every direction and he (a) too rushed at them, so they escaped from his right and left sides in the same manner a herd of sheep escape in front of a wolf."[51]

Sayyid b. Tawus narrated that, "When Imam al-Husayn (a) rushed at the lines of the enemy, 30,000 soldiers of the enemy retreated all at once and scattered like grasshoppers."[52]

After a period of fighting, Imam (a) came to his family and asked women for patience.[53] Then, he said goodbye to every one of them[54] and attended the bedside of Imam al-Sajjad (a).[55]

When Imam (a) was busy saying goodbye to his family, by the order of 'Umar b. Sa'd, the army of Kufa attacked the tents of Imam (a) and shot arrows towards them, so that some of the arrows passed through the ropes of the tents and scared the family of Imam (a).[56]

Martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a)

The Asr-i 'Ashura by Mahmud Farshchiyan, shows the returning of the horse of Imam al-Husayn (a) to the tents after his martirdom and the mourning of the women.

On the Day of 'Ashura, Imam al-Husayn (a) had located a place to attack the enemy from there and then return to it and with a loud voice [in a manner that all his family hear] said, "La hawl wa la quwwat illa bi-Allah al-'Aliy al-'Azim." [There is no ability nor power but by God, the Exalted, the Great.][57] After several times attacking the enemy and returning to his place, Shimr b. Dhi l-Jawshan and some soldiers of the army of Kufa attacked to the tents of Imam (a) and made separation between him and the tents. When Imam (a) saw that, shouted, "Woe be to you! If you do not believe in any religion and do not fear the Day of Judgement, then at least be free-spirited in your world."[58]

Foot soldiers under command of Shimr surrounded Imam (a), but they still did not come forth and inevitably Shimr encouraged them.[59] Shimr ordered the archers to shoot arrows at him and so arrows rained at him from everywhere and Imam's (a) body became full of arrows.[60] So, Imam (a) retreated and they lined in front of him.[61]

According to some sources, wounds and fatigue from battle had seriously weaken Imam (a). Thus, he (a) rested a while, but suddenly a stone hit his forehead and blood ran down. When he (a) wanted to clean the blood of his face with his shirt, a triple-pointed poisonous arrow was shot at him and hit his heart.[62]

According to some sources, a man called Malik b. Nusayr landed such a blow at Imam's (a) head that the rope of Imam's (a) helmet was torn up.[63] Another person called Zar'a b. Sharik al-Tamimi stroke a heavy blow at Imam's (a) left shoulder and Sinan b. Anas shot an arrow at Imam's (a) throat. Then, Salih b. Wahb al-Ju'fi (or according to another narration, Sinan b. Anas) came forth and stroke Imam's (a) side with spear so hard that Imam (a) fell from the horse on his right cheek.[64]

When the army of Kufa had sieged Imam (a) and he (a) was passing the last moments of his life, a small kid from the tents called 'Abd Allah b. Hasan saw Imam (a) at that state and left the tents and even though Lady Zaynab (a) tried to stop him, he rushed to Imam (a). When Bahr (or Abjar) b. Ka'b (or according to another narration, Harmala b. Kahil al-Asadi) attacked Imam (a) with sword, the kid guarded Imam (a) with his hand and the sword cut off his hand.[65]

Shimr b. Dhi l-Jawshan with a group of the army of 'Umar b. Sa'd, among whom were 'Abd al-Rahman b. Ziyad, Qash'am b. 'Amr b. Yazid al-Harduwan al-Ju'fi, Salih b. Wahb al-Yazni, Sinan b. Anas al-Nakha'i and Khawli b. Yazid al-Asbahi attacked Imam (a). Shimr was encouraging them to attack him (a) and finish the job,[66] but they did not go forth, so Shimr ordered Khawli b. Yazid to behead Imam (a). Khawli went to behead Imam (a), but when he entered the killing pit (Qatlgah), he feared and become shivering and could not proceed. So, Shimr[67] (or according to another narration, Sinan b. Anas)[68] got off from the horse and beheaded Imam (a) and gave Imam's (a) head to Khawli.[69] Upon the martyrdom of Imam (a), his body had the signs of 33 hits of sword and 34 hits of spear.[70] After the martyrdom of Imam (a), the enemy looted his clothes and everything he (a) had and left him naked on the ground.

Riding Horses on the Bodies of Martyrs

By the order of 'Umar b. Sa'd, to follow the order of 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad, ten volunteers from the army of Kufa including Ishaq b. Huya and Akhnas b. Murthad trod on the bodies of Imam (a) and other Martyrs.[71]

Sending the Heads of the Martyrs to Kufa

In the same day, 'Umar b. Sa'd sent the head of Imam al-Husayn (a) to 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad by Khawli b. Yazid al-Asbahi and Humayd b. Muslim al-Azdi. He also ordered his soldiers to behead all the companions of Imam al-Husayn (a) and the youths of Banu Hashim which were 72, and sent them to Kufa by Shimr b. Dhi l-Jawshan and 'Amr b. Hajjaj.[72]

Events after the War

Looting the Tents

Shi'a men perform during the reenactment of the Battle of Karbala as part of the 'Ashura commemorations in the city of Najaf, central Iraq, on November 4, 2014

After the martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a), the army of enemy attacked the tents to steal the clothes and whatever was there and stole all horses, camels and property including women's clothes and jewelry. They compete each other in looting the tents of Imam al-Husayn (a).[73]

Shimr b. Dhi l-Jawshan and a group of the army of the enemy entered the tents. He wanted to martyr Imam al-Sajjad (a), but Lady Zaynab (a) did not let him. According to another narration, some of the soldiers of 'Umar b. Sa'd objected him.[74]

'Umar b. Sa'd ordered to gather all the women in one tent and appointed some guards for them.[75]

Captives

After the martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a) and his companions, 'Umar b. Sa'd ordered to bury the dead soldiers of his army who were 88, but leave the bodies of Imam (a) and his companions on the ground.[76]

See Also

Notes

  1. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 423.
  2. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 423; Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 395; Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 256.
  3. Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 395; Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 256; Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmīl fī l-tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 59.
  4. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 96.
  5. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 423-426; Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 395-396; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 96.
  6. Ṣadūq, al-Amālī, p. 177; Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malhūf, p. 70.
  7. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 423-426; Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 395-396.
  8. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 422; Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmīl fī l-tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 60; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 95-95.
  9. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 423; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 96.
  10. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 438; Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 394.
  11. Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 396-398; Khwarizmī, Maqtal al-Ḥusayn, vol. 1, p. 253.
  12. Khwarizmī, Maqtal al-Ḥusayn, vol. 1, p. 252; Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī. al-Futūḥ. vol, 5. p, 100.
  13. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 424-426; Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 395-396; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 96-98.
  14. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 424-427.
  15. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 425-426; Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 397.
  16. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 423-426; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 96.
  17. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 427; Khwarizmī, Maqtal al-Ḥusayn, vol. 3, p. 9.
  18. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 104.
  19. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 429; Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 398; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 101.
  20. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 429-430.
  21. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 430-436; Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 400.
  22. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 430-437; Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 400.
  23. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 435-436; Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 400; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 103-104.
  24. Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 400.
  25. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 436-438.
  26. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 438-439.
  27. Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 400; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 104.
  28. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 436-437.
  29. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 437-439; Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 400; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 105.
  30. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 437-438.
  31. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 437; Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmīl fī l-tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 68.
  32. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 446.
  33. Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī. al-Futūḥ. vol, 5. p, 101.
  34. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 438-439; Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmīl fī l-tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 70.
  35. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 439-440.
  36. Khwarizmī, Maqtal al-Ḥusayn, vol. 2, p. 17; Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malhūf, p. 110-111.
  37. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 441; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 105.
  38. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malhūf, p. 110-111.
  39. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 441; Khwarizmī, Maqtal al-Ḥusayn, vol. 2, p. 20.
  40. Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 361-362; Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 80; Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 256.
  41. Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 115-116.
  42. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 446-449; Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 80-86.
  43. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 446-449; Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 108.
  44. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 446-453.
  45. Khwarizmī, Maqtal al-Ḥusayn, vol. 2, p. 32; Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malhūf, p. 116.
  46. Khwarizmī, Maqtal al-Ḥusayn, vol. 2, p. 32.
  47. Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 409; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 111; Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malhūf, p. 123.
  48. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 448; Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 95.
  49. Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 407; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 440.
  50. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 452; Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmīl fī l-tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 77; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 111.
  51. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 452; Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmīl fī l-tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 77; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 111.
  52. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malhūf, p. 119; Muqarram, Muqtal al-Ḥusayn, p. 276.
  53. Muqarram, Muqtal al-Ḥusayn, p. 276-278; Majlisī, Jalāʾ al-ʿuyūn, p. 408.
  54. Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 109; Muqarram, Muqtal al-Ḥusayn, p. 277.
  55. Masʿūdī, Ithbāt al-waṣīyya, p. 177-178.
  56. Muqarram, Muqtal al-Ḥusayn, p. 277-278
  57. Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malhūf, p. 119.
  58. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 450; Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 407; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 440.
  59. Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 407-408.
  60. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 111-112; Khwarizmī, Maqtal al-Ḥusayn, vol. 2, p. 35.
  61. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 111-112.
  62. Khwarizmī, Maqtal al-Ḥusayn, vol. 2, p. 34; Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malhūf, p. 120.
  63. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 448; Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmīl fī l-tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 75; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 110.
  64. Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 407-409; Dīnawarī, al-Akhbār al-ṭiwāl, p. 258; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 112.
  65. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 110; Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Malhūf, p. 122-123.
  66. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 450; Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 408-409; Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmīl fī l-tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 77.
  67. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 112; Khwarizmī, Maqtal al-Ḥusayn, vol. 2, p. 36.
  68. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 450-453; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 441; Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 118.
  69. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 453; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 6, p. 441; vol. 3, p. 409; Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 118.
  70. Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 3, p. 258-259.
  71. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 455; Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 411; Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 3, p. 259.
  72. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 455; Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 411; Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 3, p. 259.
  73. Qummī, Nafas al-mahmūm, p. 479.
  74. Qummī, Nafas al-mahmūm, p. 479-480.
  75. Qummī, Nafas al-mahmūm, p. 482.
  76. Balādhurī, ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 411; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 455.

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