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Abd Allah b. al-Hasan al-Muthanna

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Abd Allah b. al-Hasan al-Muthanna
Taking allegiance for his son, al-Nafs al-Zakiyya
Dome-of-the-shrine-of-'abd-allah-b.-al-hasan-al-muthanna.jpg
His tomb
Teknonym Abu Muhammad
Well-known As Abd Alla al-Mahd
Lineage Al Hasan
Well-known Relatives Al-Hasan al-Muthanna (father) • al-Nafs al-Zakiyya (son)Ibrahim (son)
Place of Residence Medina
Death/Martyrdom 145/763
Era Late Ummayad and early Abbasid

ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ḥasan al-Muthannā (Arabic: عبدالله بن الحسن المثنیٰ) known as ʿAbd Allāh al-Mahḍ (عبدالله المحض) was a grandson of Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (a). Toward the end of Umayyad government during the imamate of Imam al-Sadiq (a), 'Abd Allah b. al-Hasan Muthanna called his son Muhammad, as the promised al-Mahdi, and asked people to give allegiance to him.

Among his children, Muhammad (al-Nafs al-Zakiyya) and Ibrahim (Qatil Bakhamra) who rose against Abbasid government were killed, but Idris established the first Shi'a government (Idrisids).

Lineage and Position

Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khadija
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
Mariya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Qasim
 
'Abd Allah
 
Lady Fatima
 
 
 
Ibrahim
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam Ali
 
 
 
 
Umm al-Banin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Husayn
 
 
Imam al-Hasan
 
Lady Zaynab
 
Umm Kulthum
 
Muhsin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Abd Allah
 
Uthman
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
'Awn
 
Ali
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Umm Kulthum
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Hasan
 
Al-Qasim
 
'Abd Allah
 
Fatima
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd Allah
 
Zaynab
 
Ibrahim
 
Al-Hasan
 
al-Hasan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
Ibrahim
 
Idris
 
 
 
 
 
Nafisa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sajjad
 
'Ali al-Akbar
 
'Ali al-Asghar
 
Fatima
 
Sukayna
 
Ruqayya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Baqir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sadiq
 
'Abd Allah
 
Ibrahim
 
'Ubayd Allah
 
'Ali
 
Yahya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Kazim
 
Muhammad
 
Ali
 
Ishaq
 
Umm Farwa
 
'Abd Allah
 
Isma'il
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Rida
 
Ma'suama
 
Hamza
 
Ishaq
 
Ahmad
 
Ibrahim
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
Imam al-Jawad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Hadi
 
Musa
 
Fatima
 
Hakima
 
Amama
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-'Askari
 
Husayn
 
Muhammad
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
Imam al-Mahdi
 
 

The name of his father was al-Hasan al-Muthanna, son of Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (a) and his mother was Fatima, daughter of Imam al-Husayn (a).[1] He was called 'Abd Allah al-Mahd because his lineage reached the Prophet (s) from both the side of his father and his mother.[2] It is narrated from him saying, "the Prophet (s) made me born twice"[3] which referred to his lineage of both his father and his mother which reached the Prophet (s). His teknonym was Abu Muhammad.

Abu l-Faraj al-Isfahani considerd him shaykh of Banu Hashim, having knowledge, merits, and generosity.[4] It is narrated that 'Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz respected him as well.[5]

Children

  • Ibrahim: He made an uprising after his brother al-Nafs al-Zakiyya in Basra.[7] In this uprising, a great number of Zaydis, Mu'tazilis, and several famous jurists participated. Still, finally it was not successful, and Ibrahim was killed in Bakhamra region near Kufa[8] (so he was titled as Qatil Bakhamra [the slain of Bakhamra]).
  • Zaynab: She was the mother of al-Husayn, known as Shahid Fakh.
  • Sulayman: He was martyred in the Event of Fakhkh.[10]
  • Yahya:[11] His mother was Qariba, daughter of 'Abd Allah (Dhabih) b. Abi 'Ubayda. After participating in the uprising of Fakhkh, he went to Iran and secretly stayed in Daylam and invited them to his imamate and could gather companions,[12] but their uprising failed and he was imprisoned by the order of Harun al-Rashid and passed away in Baghdad in 176/792-3.[13]

As the Student of Imam al-Sajjad (a)

When he was a teenager, 'Abd Allah attended the class of Imam al-Sajjad (a).[14] He is quoted as saying, "My mother Fatima always advised me to attend the sessions of my uncle, Ali b. al-Husayn (a) and in every session, my knowledge and wariness of God increased.[15]

Political Activities

From historical reports, it can be understood that during the life of Zayd b. Ali, Abd Allah was not interested in his manner of the uprising and even before the uprising, prohibited him from being deceived by the promises of the people of Kufa.[16] It is also reported that he had a disagreement with Zayd over donations of Imam Ali (a).[17]

After Zayd was martyred, Abd Allah turned to his ideas and prepared his sons for an uprising.[18]

Taking Allegiance of People for His Son

Toward the end of the Umayyads, some of Banu Hashim including 'Abd Allah and his sons, and also Saffah and al-Mansur gathered in al-Abwa' to give allegiance to one among themselves. In that session, 'Abd Allah introduced his son, Muhammad as the promised al-Mahdi and asked others to give allegiance to him.[19] When Imam al-Sadiq (a) heard about their intention said, "Do not do this, since its time (for coming of the al-Mahdi) has not come yet." He also told 'Abd Allah, "If you think your son is the al-Mahdi, [I should tell you that] he is not the al-Mahdi and it is not the time for the coming of al-Mahdi. And if you are going to rise for the sake of God and enjoining to the good and prohibiting from evil, by God, we will not abandon you and make allegiance to your son, since you are our elderly one."

'Abd Allah became angry and said, "By God, I swear that God has not made you aware of the unseen and what you say is out of the envy you have toward my son." Imam al-Sadiq (a) said, "By God, what I said was not out of envy, but this and his brother and his children (and put his hand on the shoulder of Abu l-'Abbas al-Saffah and then put his hand on the shoulder of 'Abd Allah and said) and yes by God, that (caliphate) is not yours or your children, and belongs to them[20] and both of your sons will be killed."[21]

Rasul Ja'fariyan believes that "the disagreement between the children of Imam al-Hasan (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a) emerged when 'Abd Allah b. al-Hasan b. al-Imam al-Hasan (a) introduced his son as the Upriser of the Ahl al-Bayt (a).[22]

In the Banu l-'Abbas's Prison

Although the elders of Banu Abbas were among those who gave allegiance to the son of Abd Allah al-Mahd, they later took the caliphate. However, they were afraid of the uprising of the Al al-Hasan, especially 'Abd Allah.

Although Abu l-Abbas al-Saffah, the first Abbasid caliph, was trying to capture Abd Allah's sons, he respected Abd Allah himself. When Abu Ja'far al-Mansur reached caliphate, his greatest concern was finding Muhammad (al-Nafs al-Zakiyya) and Abd Allah refused to tell him about Muhammad's hiding place despite al-Mansur's insistence.

In 140/758, al-Mansur went to Hajj and 'Abd Allah and his brother al-Hasan went to meet him. Al-Mansur earnestly asked him to call his son to him. 'Abd Allah said, "Even if he was under my feet, I would not lift my foot off him," al-Mansur ordered to imprison him together with some other people of Al al-Hasan. He stayed in prison for three years.[23]

In 144/762, al-Mansur ordered to take them to Rabadha and then they were moved to a prison near Kufa. The prison was so that telling day from night was impossible for them and could guess the times of prayer with the time it took to recite parts of the Qur'an.

Death

He passed away in 145/763, at the age of 75, in al-Hashimiyya prison of Kufa[24] and in another report in Baghdad.[25] They say that he and some others from the Al Hasan were killed in different ways in prison and 'Abd Allah was killed by destroying the ceiling over him.[26]

His grave is 9 km west of Shanafiya in Diwaniyya province of Iraq, 70 km south of Najaf, known as 'Abd Allah Abu Najm.[27]

Notes

  1. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 198.
  2. Sajjādī, Ibrāhim b. ʿAbd Allāh, vol. 2, p. 446.
  3. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 168.
  4. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 167.
  5. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 170.
  6. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 7, p. 590.
  7. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 7, p. 622.
  8. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 378.
  9. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 406-408.
  10. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 365.
  11. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 388.
  12. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 390-433.
  13. Ibn ʿAnba, ʿUmdat al-ṭālib fi ansāb Āl Abī Ṭālib, p. 136-137.
  14. Irbilī, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2, p. 84; Qarashī, Ḥayāt al-Imām al-Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn, vol. 2, p. 264.
  15. Irbilī, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2, p. 84; Qarashī, Ḥayāt al-Imām al-Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn, vol. 2, p. 264.
  16. Ṣābirī, Tārīkh-i firaq-i islāmī, vol. 2, p. 70; quoting from al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 5, p. 143.
  17. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 2, p. 199.
  18. Ṣābirī, Tārīkh-i firaq-i islāmī, vol. 2, p. 70.
  19. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 185-186.
  20. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 185-186.
  21. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 185-186.
  22. Jaʿfarīyān, Ḥayāt-i fikrī wa sīyāsī-yi Imāmān-i Shīʿa, p. 371.
  23. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 192-193; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 7, p. 524.
  24. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 171.
  25. Ṣābirī, Tārīkh-i firaq-i islāmī, vol. 2, p. 70; quoting from Tārīkh-i Baghdād, vol. 9, p. 431-433 and Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 360.
  26. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 202-203.
  27. Governor of Najaf al-Asharf visiting the grave of ʿAbd Allāh al-Najm. Burathanews.com (Arabic)

References

  • Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn. Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn. Edited by Sayyid Aḥmad al-Ṣaqar. Beirut: Muʾassisa al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1408 AH-1987.
  • Balādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Ansāb al-ashrāf. Edited by Muḥammad Bāqir Maḥmūdī. Beirut: Muʾassisa al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1394 AH.
  • Dhahabī, Muḥammad b. al-Aḥmad al-. Al-ʿIbar fī khabar ʿan ghabar. Edited by Muḥammad Saʿīd b. Basyūnī Zaghlūl. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-Ilmiyya, [n.d].
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  • Ibn ʿAnba, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī. ʿUmdat al-ṭālib fi ansāb Āl Abī Ṭālib. Qom: Anṣārīyān, 1383 Sh.
  • Irbilī, ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā al-. Kashf al-ghumma fī maʿrifat al-aʾimma. Najaf: Maktabat al-Ḥaydariyya, 1427 AH.
  • Jaʿfarīyān, Rasūl. Ḥayāt-i fikrī wa sīyāsī-yi Imāmān-i Shīʿa. 11th edition. Qom: Intishārāt-i Anṣārīyān, 1387 Sh.
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  • Sibṭ b. al-Jawzī, Yūsuf b. Qazāwughlī. Tadhkirat al-khawāṣ. Qom: al-Sharīf al-Raḍī, 1418 AH.
  • Ṣābirī, Ḥusayn. Tārīkh-i firaq-i islāmī, firaq-i Shīʿa wa firqahā-yi mansūb bi ān. Fifth edition. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Samt, 1388 Sh.
  • Sajjādī, Ṣādiq. The entry of Ibrāhim b. ʿAbd Allāh in dāʾirat al-maʿārif buzurg-i Islāmī. volume 2. p. 446.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-.Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk. 2nd edition. Beirut: Dar al-Turāth, 1387 AH.
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  • Governor of Najaf al-Asharf visiting the grave of ʿAbd Allāh al-Najm. Burathanews.com (Arabic). visited 2021/3/11.