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Ibrahim b. Abd Allah al-Mahd

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Descendant of Imam
Ibrahim b. Abd Allah al-Mahd
Role Head of Second Uprising against Abbasid
Father 'Abd Allah al-Mahd
Birth 97/715
Place of Birth Medina
Place(s) of Residence Medina, Kufa
Demise 145/763
Place of Burial Bakhamra near Kufa
Age 48

Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbd Allāh (Arabic: ابراهیم بن عبدالله) (b. 97/715- d. 145/763), known as Qatīl Bākhamrā (Arabic: قتیل باخَمرا), was a great grandson of Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (a) and the brother of al-Nafs al-Zakiyya. He was the second 'Alawi who launched an uprising against the Abbasid caliphate. After his brother, al-Nafs al-Zakiyya, he rebelled against al-Mansur al-'Abbasi in Basra. A great number of people from Zaydis and the Mu'tazila participated in this uprising and even Abu Hanifa backed them. However, the uprising failed and Ibrahim was killed in 145/763 in the area of Bakhamra near Kufa.

Birth and Lineage

Ibrahim b. 'Abd Allah b. Hasan b. Hasan was born in 97/715. His father was 'Abd Allah al-Mahd. 'Abd Allah was the son of al-Hasan al-Muthanna and the grandson of Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (a).

Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khadija
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
Mariya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Qasim
 
'Abd Allah
 
Lady Fatima
 
 
 
Ibrahim
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam Ali
 
 
 
 
Umm al-Banin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Husayn
 
 
Imam al-Hasan
 
Lady Zaynab
 
Umm Kulthum
 
Muhsin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Abd Allah
 
Uthman
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
'Awn
 
Ali
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Umm Kulthum
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Hasan
 
Al-Qasim
 
'Abd Allah
 
Fatima
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd Allah
 
Zaynab
 
Ibrahim
 
Al-Hasan
 
al-Hasan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
Ibrahim
 
Idris
 
 
 
 
 
Nafisa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sajjad
 
'Ali al-Akbar
 
'Ali al-Asghar
 
Fatima
 
Sukayna
 
Ruqayya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Baqir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sadiq
 
'Abd Allah
 
Ibrahim
 
'Ubayd Allah
 
'Ali
 
Yahya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Kazim
 
Muhammad
 
Ali
 
Ishaq
 
Umm Farwa
 
'Abd Allah
 
Isma'il
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Rida
 
Ma'suama
 
Hamza
 
Ishaq
 
Ahmad
 
Ibrahim
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
Imam al-Jawad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Hadi
 
Musa
 
Fatima
 
Hakima
 
Amama
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-'Askari
 
Husayn
 
Muhammad
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
Imam al-Mahdi
 
 


Character

Ibrahim b. 'Abd Allah was a man of literature and hadith.[1] His father, 'Abd Allah, asked him to reply to the questions of the founders of the Mu'tazila, such as Wasil b. 'Ata' and 'Amr b. 'Ubayd.[2] He also composed poems. He made a collection of poems with al-Mufaddal al-Dabbi—an advocate of the uprising—which came to be attributed to al-Mufaddal.[3]

Uprising against the Abbasids

When al-Mansur al-'Abbasi became the caliph, the 'Alawis publicly opposed the Abbasids.[4] When 'Abd Allah al-Mahd and his family were detained in Baghdad, Ibrahim and Muhammad ('Abd Allah's sons) launched a more serious opposition against the Abbasids. In 145/762, Muhammad launched an uprising in Medina,[5] and Ibrahim launched his uprising in the early Ramadan of 145 (November 762) in Basra.[6]

Ibrahim's army departed from Basra to Kufa on Dhu l-Qa'da 1, 145 (January 21, 763).[7] On the other hand, al-Mansur al-'Abbasi sent 'Isa b. Musa with 18000 soldiers to combat Ibrahim's army.[8] The two armies met in Bakhamra in 16 parasang (about 88 km) from Kufa. At first, the frontline of the Abbasid army was heavily defeated.[9]

However, some soldiers from the Abbasid army attacked Ibrahim's army from behind.[10] It was a great surprise and shock to Ibrahim's army. An arrow hit Ibrahim's throat and killed him on Dhu l-Hijja 25, 145 (March 16, 763). This undermined the Abbasid army and gave a momentum to the Abbasids.[11] Thus, the early victory of the 'Alawids did not last long and Ibrahim's uprising failed. When Ibrahim was slain, his head was sent as a trophy to the caliph. His decapitated body was, however, buried in Bakhamra.[12]

Notes

  1. Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 273.
  2. Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 258.
  3. Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 320.
  4. Mahdawī ʿAbbās Ābād, Qiyām-i Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh, p. 134.
  5. Ibn Qutayba, al-Maʿārif, p. 378.
  6. Khalīfa, Tārīkh Khalīfa, vol. 2, p. 649.
  7. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 377.
  8. Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 5, p. 567, 568.
  9. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 3, p. 316.
  10. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 378.
  11. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 3, p. 37
  12. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 378; Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān, vol. 1, p. 316.

References

  • Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn. Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn. 3rd edition. Beirut: Muʾassisa al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1419 AH.
  • Ibn al-Athīr al-Jazarī, ʿAlī b. Abī l-Karam. Al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh. Beirut: 1402 AH.
  • Ibn Qutayba al-Dīnawarī, ʿAbd Allah b. Muslim . Al-Maʿārif. Edited by Tharwat ʿAkkāsha. Cairo: 1960.
  • Khalīfa b. Khayyāṭ. Tārīkh Khalīfa. Edited by Suhayl Zukār. Damascus: 1968.
  • Mahdawī ʿAbbās Ābād, Muḥammad b. Riḍā. Qiyām-i Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh; nakhustīn qiām-i ʿalawiyān ʿlayh-i ʿAbbāsiyān. Nashrīya-yi Dānishkada-yi ʿUlūm-i Ijtimāʿī wa Insānī-yi Dānishkada-yi Tabriz, p. 16.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-Ilmiyya, 1407 AH.
  • Yaʿqūbī, Aḥmad b. Abī Yaʿqūb al-. Tārīkh al-Yaʿqūbī. Beirut: 1379 AH.