|Role||Leader of the uprising of Fakhkh|
|Teknonym||Abu 'Abd Allah|
|Father||'Ali b. Hasan b. Hasan b. Hasan b. 'Ali (a)|
|Mother||Zaynab bt. 'Abd Allah b. Hasan b. Hasan b. 'Ali (a)|
|Demise||Dhu l-Hijja 8, 169/June 11, 786|
|Place of Burial||Fakhkh|
Al-Husayn b. 'Ali b. al-Hasan (الحسين بن عليّ بن الحسن) known as Sahib Fakhkh (Arabic: صاحب فخّ; literally: companion of Fakhkh) is a descendant of Imam al-Hasan (a) and the leader of the uprising of Fakhkh in 169/786 against Hadi al-'Abbasi which started in Medina and ended in Fakhkh near Mecca.
Birth and Lineage
Al-Husayn b. 'Ali b. al-Hasan b. al-Hasan b. al-Hasan b. 'Ali (a) was known as Saḥib al-Fakhkh. His kunya was Abu 'Abd Allah. The year of his birth is unknown in sources, however based on his age at the time of his martyrdom (41 year old) it can be assumed he was born in 128/745-6. His father 'Ali b. Hasan was a virtuous and worshiper known as 'Ali al-Khayr and 'Ali al-Aghar and his mother Zaynab was the daughter of 'Abd Allah b. Hasan b. Hasan b. 'Ali (a) known as 'Abd Allah al-Mahd. She was the sister of al-Nafs al-Zakiyya and Ibrahim Qatil Bakhamra. This couple were known as "al-Zawj al-Salih" (the riotous couple) as they were famous for worshiping and being virtuous. 'Ali b. Hasan was arrested in the time of the uprising of al-Nafs al-Zakiyya along with a number of Alavis by the order of Mansur, the Abbasid caliph. He passed away in prison after some time.
Personality of Husayn
Husayn b. 'Ali was a great speaker. He was revered for being virtuous, brave, vigil, generous person who helped the needy. Al-Shaykh al-Tusi regarded him amongst the companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a). He was martyred at the age of 41 or 57 and he did not have any children. He accepted caliphate of Mahdi, the Abbasid caliph, and he received forty thousand dinar, which he gave to needy people of Baghdad and Kufa. It is also said he sold a piece of land and he gave its money to needy people of Medina. He even borrowed money to help the poor.
Prophet Muhammad's (s) Prediction about Him
When Prophet Muhammad (s) reached the Fakhkh region in one of his travel, he said prayers with his companions and said: "a man of my family will faithfully perish here with his supporters and angels will descend from heaven to enshroud and bury them while their souls will ascend to heaven." In addition, a hadith is narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a) with similar content.
There are not enough exact information on political activities of Husayn until 169/785-6. According to narrations, a group of Shi'ites from Kufa, took oath of allegiance to him a short time before his uprising. Besides, he asked people of Mecca and Medina for pledge of allegiance and he sent his representatives to Khorasan and Jabal.
Disregarding the accuracy and reliability of such narrations, there are a number of signs proving the fact that he was involved in political activities before 169/785-6: He belonged to a family with a background that they raised against Abbasid dynasty; he was summoned to Baghdad in the time of Mahdi, the Abbasid caliph as they were worried about his activities; harsh treatment of Abbasid caliph and his representatives toward Alavis in Medina; he was accused of having the dream of being a ruler and the content of his speech in the time of his uprising. According to one narration, Husayn rebelled once before 169/785-6.
The Uprising of Fakhkh
In Dhu l-Qa'da 13, 169/May 17, 786, Husayn launched an uprising along with his supporters in Medina and took over the city. They set out for Mecca after eleven days and faced Abbasid army in Dhu l-Hijja 8/June 11, 786 in Fakhkh region. Husayn and a large number of his supporters were killed, some fled and some were captured eventually.
Fakhkh region is near Mecca. A Number of companions of the Prophet (s) were buried there. Today the place is known as Shuhada (Martyrs) Street.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from صاحب فخ in Farsi WikiShia.