|Subject||Imam al-Sadiq (a)|
Al-Imām al-Ṣādiq wa l-madhāhib al-arbaʿa (Arabic: الإمامُ الصّادق و المَذاهبُ الأربَعَة) is a book in Arabic written by Asad Haydar, a Shiite Iraqi writer. The book is a new and comprehensive analysis of the character of Imam al-Sadiq (a). It is written in four volumes, each volume consisting of two parts. As the title of the book indicates, the author seeks to analyze the jurisprudential, scholarly, and exegetical school of Imam al-Sadiq (a) in contrast with the Four Schools of Sunni Muslims.
Shaykh Asad Allah Haydar b. Muhammad b. 'Isa, known as Asad Haydar (b.1909-10 - d. 1985), was a Shiite researcher in Iraq. He was born in 1327/1909-10 in Najaf and studied with well-known teachers in the Islamic seminary of Najaf, such as al-Sayyid Muhsin al-Hakim and Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei. Although he was not a clergyman, he was respected and trusted because of his researches.
The book is considered to be a small encyclopedia concerning Shiite history, jurisprudence, and hadith. The author defends Shiite beliefs against objections. The title of the book demands that the author discusses Shiite jurisprudence and its relation with the Four Schools of Suuni Muslims, but he went beyond this, discussing issues that seem irrelevant to the title of the book. It seems that the main topic for the author was "Shiism". This is why he defends Shiism with respect to different theological, political, ethical, scholarly, and jurisprudential matters, even if it is irrelevant to Imam al-Sadiq (a) and the Four Schools.
Volumes and the Content
- First volume: it involves a preface by Hamid Hanafi Dawud, the Professor of Arabic Literature in Cairo and a preface by the author himself. In this volume, Asad Haydar also discusses the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphate, the life of Imam al-Sadiq (a), the hadith school of Imam al-Sadiq (a) and his narrators, political contemporaries of the Imam (a), the Four Sunni Schools of jurisprudence and why they were popular, and the formation of the Ja'fari School.
- Second volume: it starts with a more detailed discussion of the Ja'fari jurisprudence and school, and criticizes some partial or crude remarks by others. It also introduces some companions of Imam al-Sadiq (a) who were bearers of fiqh and hadith. In this part of the book, more prominent figures, such as Aban b. Taghlib, Mu'min al-Taq, and Hisham b. Hakam, are considered.
- Third volume: it begins with citing and criticizing the views of Orientalists and authors who talked about Shiism and Shiite beliefs, and it goes on to criticize the views of Abu Zuhra in a book he wrote about Imam al-Sadiq (a). The bulk of this volume is devoted to fiqh from the viewpoint of Shiites and Sunnis. It presents a comparative discussion of issues such as Wudu, Ghusl, Tayammum, Nijasat, and prayer to mark the distinctions between Shiite and Sunni views.
- Fourth volume: it is concerned with the leaders of the Four Sunni Schools of jurisprudence, and some issues about the life of Imam al-Sadiq (a)..
The book has so widely drawn upon different and old sources, especially the Sunni ones, in order to argue for Shiite viewpoints and the author's claims that some people have compared it with 'Allama Amini's al-Ghadir. There is almost no issue in the book that the author provides no document or argument for, even though he never cited the sources.
Translations and Publications
- A Farsi translation of the first volume of the book was published first in 1990. It was translated by Hasan Yusufi Ishkawari.
- In 2011, the whole book was translated and published in 8 volumes by the Publication of University of Religions and Denominations.
- Darbāra-yi majmūʿa-yi hasht jildī "Imām Ṣādiq wa madhāhib chāhārgana", 1391.
- Asad Ḥaydar, Imām Ṣādiq wa madhāhib chāhārgana, p. 18.
- Asad Ḥaydar, Imām Ṣādiq wa madhāhib chāhārgana, 1369.
- Hawza.Net; A glance on the book al-Imām al-Ṣādiq wa l-madhāhib al-arbaʿa. (Persian)
- Asad Ḥaydar, al-Imām al-Ṣādiq wa l-madhāhib al-arbaʿa, index of the book.
- Darbāra-yi majmūʿa-yi hasht jildī "Imām Ṣādiq wa madhāhib chāhārgana", 1390.
- Fiqahat Library, Al-Imām al-Ṣādiq wa l-madhāhib al-arbaʿa (Persian)
- Asad Ḥaydar. Al-Imām al-Ṣādiq wa l-madhāhib al-arbaʿa. Beirut: Dār al-Taʿāruf, 1422 AH.
- Asad Ḥaydar. Imām Ṣādiq wa madhāhib chāhārgana. Translated to Farsi by Ḥasan Yusufī Ishkawarī. Tehran: Shirkat Sahāmī Intishār, 1369 Sh.
- Asad Ḥaydar. Imām Ṣādiq wa madhāhib Ahl Sunnat. Translated to Farsi by Muḥammad Ḥusayn Saranjām. Qom: Adyān, 1390 Sh.
- Darbāra-yi majmūʿa-yi hasht jildī "Imām Ṣādiq wa madhāhib chāhārgana". Kitāb-i Māh-i Din. Spring 1391. No 175.
- Nigāhī bi kitāb-i arzishmand-i al-Imām al-Ṣādiq wa l-madhāhib al-arbaʿa. Farhang-i Kawthar. Summer 1379. No 40.