Risalat al-huquq (Treatise on Rights)
|Author||Imam al-Sajjad (a)|
|Original title||رِسالَة الحُقُوق|
|En. publisher||Al-Shaheed Publications|
Risāla al-Ḥuqūq (Arabic: رِسالَة الحُقُوق) is the title of a long narration from Imam al-Sajjad (a). This narration, which contains over 50 duties of any individual toward others, is in fact a treatise on moral conducts in both personal and social life. The rights discussed in this treatise address various social relations of any individual; like the duties toward parents, spouse, children, neighbors, teachers, students, believers, the leader of Congregational Prayer, the government etc. Because of the particular position and the comprehensive content, several translations and commentaries have been written on this treatise.
In this charter, Imam al-Sajjad (a) outlines 51 divine rights under seven general categories:
- The rights of God
- The rights of the soul and body organs
- The rights of worship rituals
- The rights of the governor and the people
- The rights of the family members and the relatives
- The rights of different groups of people
- financial rights
The Meaning of Right
In this context, what is meant by Right, is the divine-originated obligations and duties toward others. These rights are not confined within the jurisprudential obligations but include recommended acts as well. That is, the treatise comprises recommended ethical norms, which is not always a sin and does not result in jurisprudential penalties. This treatise discusses the most significant of Divine and moral duties and in each duty, the most important aspects have been covered.
Risalat al-Huquq in the Encyclopedic Works of Traditions
The oldest traditional sources that recorded a complete version of Risalat al-Huquq are as follow:
- Tuhaf al-'uqul , by Ibn Shu'ba al-Harrani (d.381/991) in this book 50 rights have been narrated but the chain of narration has not been mentioned.
- Al-Khisal by al-Shaykh al-Saduq (d. 382/992)
- Man la yahduruh al-faqih by al-Shaykh al-Saduq. in these two books, in addition to other 50 rights, al-Shaykh al-Saduq mentions another right under the title: the right of pilgrimage to Mecca; although such title is not mentioned, recounting the rights, in the introduction of al-Khisal.
However, there are some points regarding the authenticity of this narration.
First: in the version of Man La Yahdur , the chain of narration is not mentioned, therefor the narration is classified as Mursal.
Second: there are differences in the wording and some phrases of these three versions.
Third: in the chain of narration in al-Khisal , there is no account of Isma'il b. Fadal.
Forth: in Man la Yahdur it is not stated that these rights are in fact a treatise of Imam al-Sajjad (a) while in al-Khisal such fact is explicitly mentioned.
The Titles of Risalat al-Huquq
- The right of God
- The right of soul
- The right of tongue
- The right of ears
- The right of eyes
- The right of hands
- The right of feet
- The right of abdomen
- The right of private parts
- The right of prayers
- The right of pilgrimage to Mecca
- The right of fasting
- The right of charity
- The right of sacrificed animals
- The right of governor
- The right of teacher
- The right of lord
- The right of bondman
- The right of student
- The right of woman
- The right of slave
- The right of mother
- The right of father
- The right of child
- The right of brother
- The right of a freed slave
- The right of servant
- The right of whoever does you a favor
- The right of the reciter of Adhan
- The right of the Imam in congregational prayer
- The right of companion (general)
- The right of neighbor
- The right of friend
- The right of partner
- The right of money and whatever you possess
- The right of a loan seeker
- The right of companion (personal and particular)
- The rights of your enemy (your duties toward your enemy)
- Your rights against your enemy (what you are allowed to do toward your enemy)
- The right of anyone who consults you
- The right of counselor
- The rights of anyone who seeks advice
- The rights of anyone who gives advice
- The right of elderly
- The right of children
- The right of beggar
- The right of whoever gives charity
- The right of whoever makes you happy
- The right of whoever does you wrong
- The right of the followers of your religion
- The right of the followers of other religions
Commentaries and Translations
There are several commentaries in Arabic and Persian translation of this treatise. It also has been translated to English.
|For the full text, see text:Risalat al-huquq (Treatise on Rights).|
- Ibn Shuʿba al-Ḥarrānī, Tuḥaf al-ʿuqūl, p. 255-272.
- Ṣadūq, al-Khiṣāl, vol. 2, p. 564-570.
- Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 2, p. 618-625.
- Ibn Shuʿba al-Ḥarrānī, Ḥasan b. ʿAlī. Tuḥaf al-ʿuqūl ʿan Āl-i al-Rasūl. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Second edition. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1404 AH.
- Ḥābībī, Salmān and Mukhtār Shams al-Dīnī Muṭlaq. Kitāb shināsī Imām Sajjād, Ṣaḥīfa al-Sajjādīyya wa Risāla al-Ḥuqūq. 1st ed. Tehran: Majmaʿ Jahānī Ahl al-Bayt (a), 1394 Sh.
- Ḥusaynī Jalālī, Sayyid Muḥammad Riḍā. Jahād-i Imām Sajjād. Translated by Mūsā Dānish. 1st ed. Mashhad: Bunyād-i Pazhūhishha-yi Islāmī, 1382 Sh.
- Ḥusaynī Jalālī, Sayyid Muḥammad Riḍā. Risālat al-Ḥuqūq, Dānishnāmah-yi Jahān Islām. 1st ed. Tehran: Bunyād-i Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif al-Islāmī, 1393 Sh.
- Sepehrī, Muḥammad. Tarjuma wa sharḥ-i Risālat al-Ḥuqūq-i Imām Sajjād. 8th ed. Qom: Dār al-ʿIlim, 1384 Sh.
- Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Amālī. 6th ed. Tehran: Kitābchī, 1376 Sh.
- Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Khiṣāl. 1st ed. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Qom: Jāmiʿat al-Mudarrisīn, 1362 Sh.
- Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh. 2nd ed. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Qom: Jāmiʿat al-Mudarrisīn, 1413 AH.
- Najāshī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-. Rijāl al-Najāshī. 8th ed. Qom: Jāmiʿat al-Mudarrisīn, 1365 Sh.
- Nūrī, Mīrzā Ḥusayn al-. Mustadrak al-wasāʾil wa musṭanbit al-wasā'il. 1st ed. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt, 1408 AH.