Al-Batūl (Arabic: البتول) is one of the famous titles of Lady Fatima (a). The word literally means "separated" and "cut". Concerning the use of this title for Lady Fatima (a), there are several theories and because of this title, Imam Ali (a) was also called "Zawj al-Batul" (The husband of al-Batul) after he married to Lady Fatima (a).
The word "Batul" is derived from the root "B-t-l" meaning "to become separate". The infinitive word "Tabtil" means "isolation from others, living alone and not marrying."
"Batul" and "Batil" refer to "a woman who has cut her attachment and need to men and does not have any liking in marriage." Lady Maryam (a) was called Batul because she was detached from men or because she did not have menstruation. "Tabattul" refers to the situation when a person is attracted toward God whole-heartedly and becomes separate from anything other than Him.
Cause of Naming
Lady Fatima (a) also had the title of Batul. There are different opinions regarding the cause of calling her al-Batul; such as the following ones:
- She was distinguished from and superior to the women of her time by her actions, manner and knowledge and was separate [from others] towards God.
- According to many reports, Lady Fatima (a) was called Batul because she did not have menstruation.
Since Lady Fatima (a) was called al-Batul, her husband, Imam Ali (a) was called Zawj al-Batul [Batul’s husband]. In a sermon upon his return from the Battle of Nahrawan, he (a) introduced himself by this title.
- ↑ Jawharī, al-Ṣiḥāḥ, vol. 4, p. 1630; Farāhīdī, Kitāb al-ʿAyn, vol. 8, p. 125.
- ↑ Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān al-ʿArab, vol. 11, p. 43; Rāghib al-Iṣfahānī, Mufradāt alfāẓ al-Qurʾān, vol. 1, p. 240.
- ↑ Jawharī, al-Ṣiḥāḥ, vol. 4, p. 1630; Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 25, p. 179.
- ↑ Māzandarānī, Sharḥ uṣūl kāfī, vol. 5, p. 228; Ṭurayḥī, Majmaʿ al-baḥrayn, vol. 5, p. 316; Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 25, p. 179.
- ↑ Qundūzī, Yanābīʿ al-mawada, vol. 2, p. 322; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 43, p. 16; Ṭūsī, al-Amālī, p. 44; Ṭurayḥī, Majmaʿ al-baḥrayn, vol. 5, p. 316; Ṭabarī, Dalāʾil al-imāma, p. 54; Irbilī, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 1, p. 464; Ṣadūq, Maʿānī al-akhbār, p. 64; Maḥallātī, Rayāḥīn al-sharīʿa, vol. 1, p. 18.
- ↑ Ṣadūq, Maʿānī al-akhbār, p. 58.
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