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Al-Batul

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Al-Batūl (Arabic: البتول) is one of the famous titles of Lady Fatima (a). The word literally means "separated" and "cut". Concerning the use of this title for Lady Fatima (a), there are several theories and because of this title, Imam Ali (a) was also called "Zawj al-Batul" (The husband of al-Batul) after he married to Lady Fatima (a).

Meaning

The word "Batul" is derived from the root "B-t-l" meaning "to become separate". The infinitive word "Tabtil" means "isolation from others, living alone and not marrying."

"Batul" and "Batil" refer to "a woman who has cut her attachment and need to men and does not have any liking in marriage."[1] Lady Maryam (a) was called Batul because she was detached from men[2] or because she did not have menstruation. "Tabattul" refers to the situation when a person is attracted toward God whole-heartedly and becomes separate from anything other than Him.[3]

Cause of Naming

Lady Fatima (a) also had the title of Batul. There are different opinions regarding the cause of calling her al-Batul; such as the following ones:

  • She was distinguished from and superior to the women of her time by her actions, manner and knowledge and was separate [from others] towards God.[4]
  • According to many reports, Lady Fatima (a) was called Batul because she did not have menstruation.[5]

Zawj al-Batul

Main article: Zawj al-Batul

Since Lady Fatima (a) was called al-Batul, her husband, Imam Ali (a) was called Zawj al-Batul [Batul’s husband]. In a sermon upon his return from the Battle of Nahrawan, he (a) introduced himself by this title.[6]


See Also

Notes

  1. Jawharī, al-Ṣiḥāḥ, vol. 4, p. 1630; Farāhīdī, Kitāb al-ʿAyn, vol. 8, p. 125.
  2. Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān al-ʿArab, vol. 11, p. 43; Rāghib al-Iṣfahānī, Mufradāt alfāẓ al-Qurʾān, vol. 1, p. 240.
  3. Jawharī, al-Ṣiḥāḥ, vol. 4, p. 1630; Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 25, p. 179.
  4. Māzandarānī, Sharḥ uṣūl kāfī, vol. 5, p. 228; Ṭurayḥī, Majmaʿ al-baḥrayn, vol. 5, p. 316; Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 25, p. 179.
  5. Qundūzī, Yanābīʿ al-mawada, vol. 2, p. 322; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 43, p. 16; Ṭūsī, al-Amālī, p. 44; Ṭurayḥī, Majmaʿ al-baḥrayn, vol. 5, p. 316; Ṭabarī, Dalāʾil al-imāma, p. 54; Irbilī, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 1, p. 464; Ṣadūq, Maʿānī al-akhbār, p. 64; Maḥallātī, Rayāḥīn al-sharīʿa, vol. 1, p. 18.
  6. Ṣadūq, Maʿānī al-akhbār, p. 58.

References

  • Irbilī, ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā al-. Kashf al-ghumma fī maʿrifat al-aʾimma. Tabriz: Maktabat Banī Hāshimī, 1381 AH.
  • Jawharī, Ismāʿīl b. Ḥammād. Al-Ṣiḥāḥ. Beirut: Dār al-ʿIlm li-l-Malāyyīn, 1410 AH.
  • Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Kāfī. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1365 Sh.
  • Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Edited by Muḥammad Bāqir Bihbūdī. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Wafāʾ, 1403 AH.
  • Māzandarānī, Muḥammad Sāliḥ b. Ahmad. Sharḥ uṣūl kāfī. Edited by Abu l-Ḥassan Shaʿrānī and Sayyid ʿAlī Āshūr. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī li-ṭibaʿat wa al-Nashr wa al-Tawzīʿ, 1421 AH.
  • Maḥallātī, Ḍhabīḥ Allāh. Rayāḥīn al-sharīʿa dar tarjuma-yi bānwān-i dānishmand-i shīʿa. Tehran: Dār al-Kitāb al-Islāmī, [n.d].
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūna. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmiyya, 1374 Sh.
  • Nūrī, Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad Taqī. Khātima al-mustadrak al-wasāʾil. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt, 1408 AH.
  • Qummī, Shaykh ʿAbbās. Bayt al-Aḥzān. Translated to Farsi by Ishtihārdī. Qom: [n.d].
  • Qundūzī, Sulaymān b. Ibrāhīm. Yanābīʿ al-mawadat li-dhawi l-qurbā. Edited by Sayyid Alī Jamāl Ashraf Ḥusaynī. [n.p]: Dār al-Uswa li-ṭibaʿat wa al-Nashr, 1416 AH.
  • Rāghib al-Iṣfahānī, Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad al-. Mufradāt alfāẓ al-Qurʾān. Translated to Farsi by Sayyid Ghulām Riḍā Khusrawī Ḥusaynī. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Murtaḍawī, 1375 Sh.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. ʿIlal al-sharāʾiʿ. Edited by Sayyid Muḥammad Ṣādiq Baḥr al-ʿUlūm. Najaf: Manshurāt al-Maktaba al-Ḥaydariyya, 1385 AH/1966.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Maʿānī al-akhbār. Qom: Jāmiʿa-yi Mudarrisīn, 1403 AH.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Al-Amālī. Edited by al-Bi'tha Institute. Qom: Dār al-Thiqāfa li-ṭibaʿat wa al-Nashr wa al-Tawzīʿ, 1414 AH.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Dalāʾil al-imāma. Qom: Dār al-Dhakhāʾir, [n.d].
  • Ṭurayḥī, Fakhr al-Dīn b. Muḥammad al-. Majmaʿ al-baḥrayn. Edited by Sayyid Aḥmad Ḥusaynī. 3rd edition. Tehran: Kitabfrūshī Murtaḍawī, 1375 Sh.