Fāṭimīyya (Arabic:الفاطمية) is an adjectival term, referring to the anniversary of Lady Fatima al-Zahra's martyrdom, during which Shi'a community holds mourning sessions and rituals.
According to different historical reports within Shi'a traditions, several different dates have been recorded for this incident. Among Iraqi Shi'as, especially in Najaf, three different days, and in Iran two days of the year, are held as the anniversary of her martyrdom. Out of different historical accounts, third of Jumada II is regarded as more reliable; hence it is an official holy day in Iran, as an occasion for mourning and lamentation.
Variance of Historical Reports
The exact date of Lady Fatima al-Zahra's martyrdom remains uncertain due to different historical reports and narrations from the Ahl al-Bayt (a). There are different and incompatible records of that date, such as forty days after the demise of the Prophet (s), seventy-two or seventy-five days after it, ninety-five days, three or six months after the demise.
Iraqi Shi'as hold ceremonies in three of these reports: forty days after the demise of the Prophet (s) (Rabi' II 8), seventy-five days after it (Jumada I 13), and ninety-five days (Jumada II 3). Iranian Shi'a, however, hold ceremonies in two last ones, that are called "the first Fatimiyya" and "the second Fatimiyya," respectively.
According to what Abu Basir has narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a), Lady Fatima al-Zahra (a) was martyred on Tuesday, third of Jumada II. This occasion has been revitalized after the establishment of the Islamic Seminary in Qom by Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri.
As a Holiday in Iran
Since 2000, Jumada II 3 (the second Fatimiyya) has been declared as a national holiday in Iran. After this decision, the mourning ceremonies expanded in Iran. Some Shi'a marja's attend ritual mourning procession, walking toward the Holy Shrine of Imam al-Rida (a) in Mashhad, and the Holy Shrine of Lady Fatima al-Ma'suma (a) in Qom.
Time of Mourning
There is no specific period of time in Shi'a tradition for mourning and the popular titles of the "first 10-days" or the "second 10-days" of Fatimiyya in recent years has followed the tradition of the "first 10-days of Muharram" and no hadith or tradition is recommending it. The great position of the Prophet's (s) daughter, her martyrdom defending Imam Ali (a) and her hardships are the reasons behind this tradition among Shi'a.
The time of these two 10-day periods is different in different cities but, usually according to the 75-day report, the second 10-days of Jumada I (from 10th to 20th of Jumada I) is called the "first 10-days" and based on the 95-day report, the first 10-days of Jumada II (from 10th to 20th of Jumada II) is called the "second 10-days" of Fatimiyya. Some grand Shi'a authorities have advised that in both 10-day Fatimiyya, three days should be dedicated to mourning ceremonies; so that mourning ceremonies should be held on 13th, 14th, and 15th of Jumada I in the first Fatimiyya time and 1st, 2nd and 3rd of Jumada II in the second Fatimiyya period.
Making the Model of the House of Lady Fatima (s)
In recent years, during the days of Fatimiyya, some models of Banu Hashim neighborhood, the house of Lady Fatima (s), Bayt al-Ahzan, Baqi' cemetery, Ghadir Khumm, etc. are built for public exhibition in some cities of Iran, especially in Qom and Tehran.
Fatimiyya in other Countries
In other countries including Iraq, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan and Australia, mourning ceremonies are held in Fatimiyya time. In Europe, centers such as the Islamic Center of Hamburg, Islamic Center of England and Imam Ali (a) Islamic Center in Stockholm hold mourning ceremonies in these times. Fatimiyya ceremonies are held for 3 to 5 nights.
- ↑ See: Nazarī Mufarid, Tanhā yādigār, p. 427-431.
- ↑ Ṭabarī, Dalāʾil al-imāma, p. 134.
- ↑ Raḍawī, Ḥāj shaykh ʿAbd al-Karīm Ḥā'irī wa sāmān dādan bi tablīghāt-i dīnī, p. 151-154.
- ↑ The story of declaring Fatimiyya as a national holiday. (Persian)
- ↑ Tabrīzī, Sīra-yi Mīrzā Jawād Tabrīzī, p. 88-92; Mazāhirī, Andīshahā-yi nāb, p. 103.
- ↑ When "Fatimiyya" starts? (Persian)
- ↑ The idea of the Maraji' about the coincidence of Fatimiyya and Nowruz. (Persian)
- ↑ Exhibition of models of Banu Hashim neighborhood (Persian).Banu Hashim neighborhood in Reygan (Persian)
- ↑ Mourning of Fatimiyya in Pakistan (Persian)
- ↑ Mourning of Fatimiyya in Tajikistan (Persian)
- ↑ Mourning of Fatimiyya in Melbourne, Australia
- ↑ Mourning of Fatimiyya in Hamburg, Germany
- ↑ Fatimiyya ceremonies in European cities
- Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Kāfī. 4th edition. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1407 AH.
- Mazāhirī, Ḥusayn. Andīshahā-yi nāb. Iṣfahān: Muʾssisa al-Zahrāʾ, 1390 SH.
- Nazarī Mufarid, ʿAlī. Tanhā yādigār. Qom: Intishārāt-i Jilwa-yi Kamāl, 1389 SH.
- Raḍawī, ʿAbbās. Ḥāj shaykh ʿAbd al-Karīm Ḥā'irī wa sāmān dādan bi tablīghāt-i dīnī. Hawza Journal, Year 21, No 5.
- Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Dalāʾil al-imāma. Qom: Nashr-i Biʿthat, 1413 AH.
- Tabrīzī, Jaʿfar. Sīra-yi ustād al-fuqahā wa al-mujtahidīn Mīrzā Jawād Tabrīzī. Qom: Dār al-Siddīqa al-Shahīda, 1391 SH.
- The story of declaring Fatimiyya as a national holiday. Fars News Agency (Persian). from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
- Exhibition of models of Banu Hashim neighborhood. Mehrnews.com (Persian). from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
- Banu Hashim neighborhood in Reygan Irna.ir/news (Persian). from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
- When "Fatimiyya" starts? Soalcity.ir (Persian). from the original on 4 January 2019. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
- The idea of the Maraji' about coincidence of Fatimiyya and Nowruz. Fars News Agency (Persian). from the original on 21 March 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
- Mourning of Fatimiyya in Pakistan. Irna.ir (Persian) from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
- Mourning of Fatimiyya in Tajikistan. Tajik.irib.ir/persian/news (Persian) from the original on 14 April 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
- Mourning of Fatimiyya in Melbourne, Australia. AhlulBayt News Agency. (Persian) from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
- Mourning of Fatimiyya in Hamburg, Germany. Mehrnews.com (Persian) from the original on 4 March 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
- Fatimiyya ceremonies in European cities. AhlulBayt News Agency. (Persian) from the original on 17 February 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2020.