Shar’i zuhr

Priority: c, Quality: b
From wikishia

Sharʿī ẓuhr or al-Zawāl (Arabic: الظُهْر الشَرعي أو الزَوال) is when half of the time between sunrise and sunset passes.[1] "Shar'i zuhr" is the beginning of time zuhr prayer.

According to jurists, to determine "shar'i zuhr", a stick or other object is placed vertically on the ground, and when the shadow of the index reaches the shortest, it is the time of "zawal".[2]

According to some jurists, such as al-Sayyid 'Ali al-Sistani, to determine the "shar'i zuhr", the time between sunrise and sunset is calculated, and half of it is the time of "zawal". For example, if the sunrise in a city is at 6 am and the sunset is at 8 pm, then the duration of shining the sun is 14 hours, half of which is 7 hours after sunrise, which is "shar'i zuhr", which in this example is at 1 pm.[3]

Rulings Related to Shar'i zuhr

In books of fiqh, shar'i zuhr is discussed when speaking about the times of a traveler’s daily prayer[4] and fasting. Some of its rulings are:

  • "Shar'i zuhr" changes according to geographical regions and days of the year.[5]
  • The fatwa of the jurists states that "shar'i zuhr" is the beginning time for performing zuhr prayer.[6]
  • According to jurists, if a fasting person travels before "shar'i zuhr", his fast will be invalid.[7]
  • If a traveler reaches his hometown or a place where he intends to stay for ten days before noon if he has not done something that invalidates the fast, he must fast that day, and if he has done something that invalidates the fast, then the fast of that day is not obligatory on him.[8]

Notes

  1. Sīstānī, Tawḍīh al-masāʾil, vol. 1, issue. 953.
  2. Ṭabāṭabāʾī Yazdī, al-ʿUrwat al-wuthqā, vol. 2, p. 252; Khomeinī, Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, no. 729, p. 116; Makārim Shīrāzī, Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, no. 672.
  3. Sīstānī, Tawḍīh al-masāʾil, vol. 1, issue. 953.
  4. Ṭabāṭabāʾī Yazdī, al-ʿUrwat al-wuthqā, vol. 2, p. 673.
  5. Ṭabāṭabāʾī Yazdī, al-ʿUrwat al-wuthqā, vol. 2, p. 252; Why is there an obvious difference in religious times in two horizons that are close to each other? (Persian).
  6. Ṭabāṭabāʾī Yazdī, al-ʿUrwat al-wuthqā, vol. 2, p. 250; Khomeinī, Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, no. 731, p. 117; Makārim Shīrāzī, Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, no. 673.
  7. Banī Hāshimī Khomeinī, Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil-i marajiʿ, vol. 1, p. 953.
  8. Banī Hāshimī Khomeinī, Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil-i marajiʿ, vol. 1, p. 994.

References

  • Banī Hāshimī Khomeinī, Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥasan. Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil-i marajiʿ. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī affiliated to Jāmiʿa-yi Mudarrisīn-i Ḥawza-yi ʿIlmīyya-yi Qom, 1381 Sh.
  • Khomeinī, Sayyid Rūḥ Allāh. Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil. Qom: Muʾassisa-yi Tanẓīm wa Nashr-i Āthār-i Imām Khomeini, 1391 Sh.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil. Edition 59. Qom: Intishārāt-i Madrasa-yi Imām ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib (a), 1429 AH.
  • Sīstānī, Sayyid ʿAlī. Tawḍīh al-masāʾil. [n.p], [n.d].
  • Ṭabāṭabāʾī Yazdī, Muḥammad Kāẓim al-. Al-ʿUrwat al-wuthqā. Edited by Aḥmad Muḥsinī Sabziwārī. Qom: Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī affiliated to Jāmiʿa-yi Mudarrisīn-i Ḥawza-yi ʿIlmīyya-yi Qom, 1421 AH.
  • چرا اوقات شرعی در دو افق نزدیک به هم اختلاف مشهود دارد؟ (Why is there an obvious difference in religious times in two horizons that are close to each other? (Persian)). Accessed: 2024/04/24..