|Religious Affiliation||Shia Islam|
|Birth||April 9, 1929|
|Place of Birth||Tabriz|
|Studied in||Tabriz, Qom|
|Professors||Sayyid Husayn Burujirdi, Sayyid Muhammad Badkuba'i, Imam Khomeini|
|Works||al-Mūjaz, Furugh abadiyyat, Manshur-i javid, Ayin-i Wahhabiyyat|
|Publishing the Journal of Maktab-i Islam, manager of the Dar al-Tabligh-i Islami|
|Representative in Assembly of Experts for Constitution.|
Ja'far Subḥānī (Persian: جعفر سبحانی) (b. 1929), one of the Shi'a Marja' and teachers in Qom Seminary. He is an expert in jurisprudence, principles of jurisprudence, Qur'anic exegesis, and theology. Prior to the Islamic revolution in Iran, Subhani was one of the managers of Dar al-Tabligh-i Islami and one of the authors of Maktab-i Islam journal. After the revolution, he became the representative of the people of the Eastern Azerbaijan Province in the Assembly of Experts for Constitution. He is the founder of the Specialized Institute for Islamic Theology (Imam Sadiq Institute) in Qom Seminary.
He is the author of many works on Islamic Studies, including al-Mūjaz, Furugh abadiyyat, Manshur javid, Ayin Wahhabiyyat, and Manshur aqa'id Imamiyya. Some of his works are textbooks of the Shiite Seminaries.
Biography and Education
Ja'far Subhani was born on April 9, 1929 in Tabriz. His father was Ayatollah Muhammad Husayn Subhani Khiyabani. After finishing his traditional elementary education, he started his seminary education at the age of fourteen at Talibiyya Seminary in Tabriz. Among his teachers there were Hasan Nahwi, Aliakbar Nahwi, and Muhammad Ali Mudarris Khiyabani.
With the emergence of the Democrat Party under the leadership of Pishevari in 1946 and the establishment of their self-governing rule in Azerbaijan area, Ja'far Subhani moved to Qom and continued his education under Muhammad Mujahidi Tabrizi (1327/1909-1379/1959), Mirza Ahmad Kafi (1318/1900-1412/1991), and Ayatollah Gulpayegani.
Besides taking the traditional courses on Islamic jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence, Ja'far Subhani studied philosophy, theology, and Quranic exegesis. In Tabriz, he studied Sharh al-Qawa'id with Sayyid Muhammad Badkuba'i, and in Qom he studied Sharh al-Manzuma and al-Asfar with 'Allama Tabataba'i. After the publication of Allama Tabatabai's Usul-i falsafa was rawish realism (The Principles of Philosophy and the Method of Realism), 'Allama asked him to translate the book into Arabic. The first volume of this translation was published with Allama's foreword.
Scholarly and Cultural Activities
Ayatollah Subhani has had a vast range of scholarly and cultural activities, including teaching, authoring textbooks, and founding the Specialized Institute for Islamic Theology.
In 1942, Ayatollah Subhani started teaching at the seminary. He taught preliminary and intermediate subjects, including the books al-Ma'alim, al-Rasa'il, Kifaya on principles of jurisprudence, and al-Lum'a and al-Makasib on jurisprudence.
He has been teaching the advanced courses of jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence (dars al-kharij) since 1975. He has taught five rounds of the advanced course on principles of jurisprudence, each course taking six years, and currently he is teaching the same course for the sixth round. The content of his lectures in this course is published in a four-volume work entitled al-Mahsul fi 'ilm al-usul and another work entitled Irshad al-'uqul ila 'ilm al-usul.
In his advanced course on Islamic jurisprudence, he has taught various legal topics such as zakat, penal laws, judicial laws, trade, inheritance, marriage, divorce, and religious taxes.
He also taught al-Asfar al-arba'a, the major philosophical work of Mulla Sadra. In addition, he has taught theology, hadith sciences, Islamic and Shiite history, doxography, Quranic exegesis, and Arabic literature. He has published books for each of these subjects.
Textbooks for the Islamic Seminary
After the Islamic revolution, the Managing Council of Qom Seminary decided to produce textbooks for some of the Islamic sciences. In this regard, Ayatollah Subhani, authored textbooks in the fields of rijal, theology, and doxography.
Imam Sadiq (a) Institute
This institute which is the Specialized Center of Islamic theology in Qom Islamic Seminary was established in 1991 under the supervision of Ayatollah Subhani. It is one of the major centers of theological studies in the Islamic Seminary. The institute publishes the Journal of Islamic Theology.
After Michel Hoebink's interview with Abdulkarim Soroush entitled “The Word of Mohammad” in 2007, Ayatollah Subhani wrote a critical letter to Soroush. In response, Soroush wrote two letters entitled “Bashar wa bashir” and “Tuti wa zanbur” (The Parrot and the Bee), to which Ayatollah Subhani responded by writing two further letters. These letters were collected in a book entitled Mas'ala-yi wahy (The Question of Revelation) in 2012.
After the uprising of Khordad 15, 1342 Sh/June 5, 1963 and the detainment of Imam Khomeini, Ayatollah Subhani was one of the scholars who signed the critical letter of the scholars of Qom Seminary to the government of the time. Moreover, he was one of the individuals who signed a second letter in March 1964 to Hasanali Mansour, the prime minister of the time, objecting to the continued detainment of Imam Khomeini and some other religious scholars. Also, during the transfer of Imam Khomeini from Turkey to Najaf, he was among the scholars who signed a telegraph message in support of Imam Khomeini.
The Journal of Maktab-i Islam
Ayatollah Subhani was one of the main administrators of Dar al-Tabligh-i Islami, which was a center founded in 1966 in Qom by Ayatollah Shari'atmadari with the aim of training religious preachers and countering anti-religious and anti-Shiite propagations. Apart from his administrative role, Ayatollah Subhani taught and delivered lectures in this center.
In 1959 and 1960, a group of scholars, including Ayatollah Subhani launched the journal Maktab-i Islam (The School of Islam) under the supervision of the maraji' of the time, and Ayatollah Subhani was a constant writer of the journal.
Currently, he is the owner of the journal and it is published under his supervision.
Assembly of Experts for Constitution
After the Islamic Revolution, Ayatollah Subhani was elected as a representative of the Eastern Azerbaijan Province in the Assembly of Experts for Constitution.
As a Marja'
After the demise of Ayatollah Shaykh Jawad Tabrizi in November 20, 2007, Ayatollah Subhani published his manual of Islamic law per the request of a group of the people of Azarbayejan.
Ayatollah Subhani has published numerous works on religious sciences, including Quranic exegesis, hadith, jurisprudence, principles of jurisprudence, theology, history, philosophy, doxography, Arabic literature, apologetics, and criticism of Wahhabism.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from جعفر سبحانی in Farsi WikiShia.