Muslim Malakuti

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Muslim Malakuti
آیت الله ملکوتی.jpg
Personal Information
Religious AffiliationTwelver Shi'a
Place of BirthSarab
ResidenceSarab, Tabriz, Qom, Mashhad, Najaf
Studied inSarab, Tabriz, Qom, Mashhad, Najaf
Burial PlaceShrine of Lady Ma'suma
Scholarly Information
ProfessorsImam Khomeini, Husayn Burujirdi, Abu l-Qasim Khoei, ...
Imam of Friday prayer
Socio-Political Activities
Member of Jami'a Mudarrisin of Qom Seminary and Assembly of Experts, ...

Muslim Malakuti (Persian: مسلم ملکوتی, b. 1924, d. 2014) was a Shi'ite faqih, the imam of Friday Prayer in Tabriz, a member of Jami'a Mudarrisin of Qom Seminary and a member of the Assembly of Experts. He was a supporter of Imam Khomeini in the time of Islamic Revolution in Iran and was later appointed as his representative in Tabriz. Mr. Malakuti was the imam of Friday Prayer in Tabriz from 1981 to 1994. Later he returned to Qom and started teaching Islamic theology. Malakuti published his al-risala al-'amaliyya (Manual of Islamic Laws) in the last year of his life.


Muslim Malakuti was born on 15th Khordad 1303/1924 near Sarab, a city of 130 km from Tabriz. His father was a literate farmer. At the age of five or six Muslim learnt reading and writing from a local scholar who was his relative as well. He also learnt Islamic theology and Quran and he memorized a part of Quran. Then he continued his education in Sarab, Tabriz, Qom, Mashhad and Najaf. In 1967 Malakuti returned to Iran and continued his scientific activities in Seminary of Qom where he was teaching and writing books.

Besides Muslim Malakuti engaged in political activities and opposed Pahlavi regime. After the Islamic Revolution in Iran, Malakuti was elected as a member of the Assembly of Experts. Then due to the martyrdom of Shahid Madani, Muslim Malakuti was appointed as the representative of Imam Khomeini in Eastern Azerbaijan province of Iran and the Imam of Friday Prayer in Tabriz. In 1994 Malakuti returned to Qom and continued his scientific works in Seminary of Qom. He passed away in 2014.

Scientific Activities

Muslim Malakuti started his seminary education in Sarab where he passed the elementary courses. Then at the age of seventeen he moved to Tabriz in order to continue his education. Malakuti stayed in Tabriz for four years and learnt from Sayyid Kazim Shari'atmadari, Sayyid Mahdi Angaji, Mirza Fattah Shahidi and Mirza Mahmud Duzduzani. He was also teaching the courses he had learnt to freshmen.

In order to continue his education Malakuti moved to Qom In 1942, where he learnt from Mirza Muhammad Qummi and Sayyid Muhammad Hujjat Kuhkamara'i. He also attended the classes of scholars including Ayatullah Burujirdi, Mirza Mahdi Mazandarani, Shaykh Abu l-Qasim Isfahani, Mirza Mahdi Ashtiyani and Allama Tabataba'i. Malakuti also learnt logical sciences from Imam Khomeini. Later he moved to Mashhad and attended courses of Mirza Mahdi Isfahani in Seminary of Mashhad. Malakuti also learnt mathematics and astronomy from Shaykh Muhammad Reza Karbasi.

Muslim Malakuti moved to Najaf in 1955 and attended the classes of Sayyid Abu l-Qasim Khu'i, Sayyid 'Abd al-Hadi Shirazi, Sayyid Muhsin Hakim, Sayyid Mahmud Shahrudi and Shaykh Husayn Hilli. In addition, he was teaching fiqh, Usul, Philosophy, Kalam and Mathematics in Seminary of Najaf.

Muslims Malakuti stayed in Najaf for twelve years and returned to Iran in the summer of 1967. He planned to return to Najaf in the end of summer but due to conflicts between Iraq and Iran and dangers on the borderlines, he was forced to return to Qom. Then he started teaching Fiqh, Usul, Philosophy as well as writing books in that time. In 1981 he moved to Tabriz when Imam Khomeini appointed him as the Imam of Friday Prayer in Tabriz where he stayed until 1924. After that he returned to Qom and continued teaching and scientific works until his death.

Political and Social Activities

When Muslim Malakuti returned to Iraq, he engaged in political and social activities including:

  • Encouraging people to fight against Pahlavi regime
  • Foundation of the Library and Qard al-Hasan Fund (interest-free loan fund) in Sarab
  • A member of Jami'a Mudarrisin of Seminary of Qom by which he opposed Pahlavi regime
  • Being in Istifta'at Office (office of answering religious questions) of Imam Khomeini after the Islamic Revolution of Iran
  • Being the representative of Imam Khomeini in resolving the issues of people in Azerbaijan and Zanjan provinces.
  • Being the representative of Imam Khomeini in Eastern Azerbaijan province and the Imam of Friday Prayer in Tabriz from 1981; after the martyrdom of Ayatullah Madani.
  • Being the representative of people of Eastern Azerbaijan in the first and second Assembly of Experts.


  • The material for writing this article has been mainly taken from مسلم ملکوتی in Farsi wikishia.