Mirza Ahmad Ashtiyani

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Mirza Ahmad Ashtiyani
Personal Information
Well-Known RelativesMuhammad Hasan Ashtiyani
Studied inTehran, Najaf
Burial PlaceHoly shrine of 'Abd al- 'Azim al-Hasani (a) in Rey
Scholarly Information
ProfessorsSayyid Muhammad Yazdi, Mirza Hashim Rashti, ...

Mīrzā Aḥmad Āshtiyānī (Persian:میرزا احمد آشتیانی) (b. 1300/1882-3 - d. 1395/1975) was a Shi'a jurist and philosopher. He was the fourth and the last child of Mirza Hasan Mujtahid Ashtiyani. He received ijtihad certificate from five marja's who lived in his time, Mirza Husayn Na'ini, Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri, Aqa Diya' 'Iraqi, Sayyid Abu l-Hasan Isfahani, and Sayyid Husayn Burujirdi. He taught both intellectual and narrative sciences. Some of his works are: Risala-yi qawl-i thabit, Maqalat-i Ahmadiyya and Nama-yi rahbaran. From 1340/1923, he taught and guided people in Tehran until he breathed his last.


Mirza Ahmad was the fourth and the youngest child of Mirza Hasan Ashtiyani. He was born in 1300/1882-3. His oldest son –Mirza Muhammad Baqir (b.1323/1905-6 - d.1404/1983-4)- was a great scholar in his own time.


After finishing Persian literature and basic Arabic, he started studying jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence under his father. After his father passed away, he continued his studies under scholars such as Sayyid Muhammad Yazdi, Mirza Hashim Rashti, Hakim Kirmanshahi, and Hakim Ishkiwari, and then started to teach intellectual and narrative sciences in Sipahsalar seminary.


In 1340/1921-2 he headed to Najaf and along with studying under Muhammad Husayn Na'ini and Aqa Diya' 'Iraqi, he started teaching philosophy.

In 1350/1931-2 he returned to Iran where he taught jurisprudence, principles of jurisprudence and intellectual sciences, wrote books and guided people until he breathes his last.

Scholarly Character

Ashtiyani's books: Maqalat-i Ahmadiyya and Nama-yi rahbaran
Grave stone of Ashtiyani

In addition to his comprehensive knowledge in intellectual and narrative sciences, he knew old medical knowledge, mathematics, and other old sciences. He also was familiar with calligraphy and composed poems under the pen name "Walih".

When he passed away, he was the administrator of Marvi seminary - the biggest seminary school in Tehran.


He received his ijtihad certificate from five marja's who lived in his time: Mirza Husayn Na'ini, Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri, Aqa Diya' 'Iraqi, Sayyid Abu l-Hasan Isfahani and Sayyid Husayn Burujirdi.


Rida Ustadi reported that 62 works have remained from him including books, treatises, and glosses, 27 of which have not been published yet. Thirty two glosses on famous and reliable books in: jurisprudence, principles of jurisprudence, logic, philosophy, mysticism, spherical astronomy (hay'at), Arabic rhetoric, morphology and syntax are among his non-published works. What follow are some of his published works:

  1. Risala-yi qawl-i thabit (Persian) in theology .
  2. Nama-yi rahbaran, Amuzish-i kitab-i takwin (Persian) in philosophy and Shi'a theology.
  3. Maqalat-i Ahmadiyya (Persian) including three articles in ethics.
  4. Tara'if al-hikam (Arabic) also translated to Persian under the title Andarzhay-i mumtaz.
  5. Lawami' al-haqa'iq fi usul al-'aqa'id (Arabic) in theology.
  6. Chahardah risala (14 treatises) (Persian) published by effort of Rida Ustadi.
  7. Sad-u bist-u chahar hadith wa chahar risala-yi 'irfani va falsafi (124 narrations and 4 treatises in mysticism and philosophy) (Arabic) also the book Nur al-hidayah fi l-Imama (written by Jalal al-Din Dawani) has been published as an addendum to this book.


He passed away on Tuesday Jumada II 14, 1395/June 24, 1975. The next day, the bazaar of Tehran was closed in his honor and a lot of people, scholars, and his students attended his funeral. His body was buried in his family tomb located in the courtyard of the holy shrine of 'Abd al- 'Azim al-Hasani (a) in Rey.


  • Ashtiyani, Ahmad. Chahardah risala-yi farsi. Edited by Rida Ustadi. Tehran: Chihil Sutun, 1403 AH.
  • Ashtiyani, Ahmad. Sad wa bist hadith wa chahar risala-yi 'irfani wa falsafi. Edited by Rida Ustadi. Tehran: Chihil Sutun, 1406 AH.
  • Ashtiyani, Sayyid Jalal al-Din. Sharh-i muqaddama-yi Qaysari bar Fusus al-hikam. Mashhad: Bastan, 1385 AH.
  • Ibn Turka, Sa'id al-Din. Tamhid al-qawa'id. Edited by Jalal al-Din Ashtiyani. Tehran: Anjuman-i Islami-yi Hikmat wa Falsafa, 1360 Sh.
  • Ghafuri, Hasan. Mukhtasari az sharh-i zindigani-yi Aqa Mirza Ahmad Ashtiyani.