Ākhūnd Mullā Muḥammad Kāshānī (Farsi: آخوند ملا محمد کاشانی), known as Akhund Kashi (آخوند کاشی) (b. 1249/1833-4 - d. 1333/1915), was a prominent teacher and promoter of Mulla Sadra's philosophy in the 13th/19th century in Isfahan.

Muhammad Kashani
Personal Information
Full NameMuhammad Kashani
Well-Known AsAkhund Kashi
Place of BirthKashan
Studied inIsfahan
DeathSha'ban 20, 1333/July 3, 1915 in Isfahan
Burial PlaceTakht-i Fulad Cemetery, Isfahan
Scholarly Information
ProfessorsAqa Muhammad Rida Qumsha'i, Mulla Hasan Nuri, Mulla 'Abd al-Jawad Khurasani

He studied with scholars such as Aqa Muhammad Rida Qumsha'i, Mulla Hasan Nuri, and Mulla 'Abd al-Jawad Khurasani, and had many great students such as Sayyid Abu l-Hasan Isfahani, Sayyid Hasan Mudarris, and Haj Aqa Rahim Arbab. In addition to philosophy, he mastered mathematics, astronomy, fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), and Islamic mysticism. He mixed philosophy with mysticism, and he is reported to have displayed some supernatural abilities (karamat).[1]

Birth and Death

Little is known about Kashani's life. Sources have not mentioned his birth date, but since he died in Sha'ban of 1333/1915[2] at the age of 84, he must have been born circa 1249/1833.

Scholarly Activities

Jadda-yi Kuchak Seminary in Isfahan, where Akhund Kashi used to live.

Akhund Kashi moved from Kashan to Isfahan in 1286/1869-70, and sojourned in the Jadda-yi Kuchak Seminary on his own (he never married throughout his life).[3] Towards the end of his life, he went to Sadr Seminary in Isfahan and continued to teach there.[4]

In addition to philosophy, Kashani mastered mathematics, astronomy, and fiqh.[5]

He was contemporaneous and companion with Jahangir Khan Qashqa'i, and both taught philosophy in Sadr Seminary, promoting Mulla Sadra's philosophy. Their lectures attracted many students from different cities and countries.[6]

Kashani had mystical tendencies; he merged philosophy with mysticism.




Kashani died in Sha'ban 20, 1333/ July 3, 1915 at the age of 84 in Isfahan.[9] He was buried in Takht-i Fulad cemetery.


In 2012 a Conference was held in Mashhad Ardahal (a city near Kashan) as a tribute to Mulla Muhammad Kashi, and in the conference some books were released such as Tayir-i qudsi a biography of Akhund Mulla Muhammad Kashani written by Husayn Jamshidi, and A collection of papers about Kashi's character edited by Afshin 'Atifi.


  1. Saduqi Suha, Tarikh-i hukama wa 'urafa-yi muta'akhkhir, 2nd edition, pp.412-414; Kitabi, Rijal-i Isfahan, vol.1, p.400
  2. Mahdawi, Tadhkirat al-qubur, p.7
  3. Aqa Buzurg Tihrani, Tabaqat, Nuqaba', Part 5, p.146
  4. Saduqi Suha, Tarikh-i hukama wa 'urafa-i muta'akhkhir, 2nd edition, Tehran, 1381 SH
  5. Kitabi, Rijal-i Isfahan, vol.1, pp.401-402
  6. Humayi, Du risala dar falsafa-yi Islami, pp.15-18; Qaraqani, Jahangir Khan Qashqayi, p.541; Kitabi, Rijal-i Isfahan, vol.1, p.401
  7. Mu'allim Habibabadi, Makarim al-athar, vol.7, p.2355; Saduqi Suha, Tarikh-i hukama wa 'urafa-yi muta'akhkhir, 2nd edition, p.411
  8. Saduqi Suha, Tarikh-i hukama wa 'urafa-yi muta'akhkhir, 2nd edition, pp.414-420
  9. Mahdawi, Tazkirat al-qubur, p.7


  • Tihrani, Aqa Buzurg, Tabaqat a'lam al-Shi'a, "Nuqaba' al-bashar fi l-qarn al-rabi' 'ashar", Mashhad, Qism 1-4, 1404 AH, and Qism 5, Muhammad Tabataba'i Bihbahani Publications, 1388 SH.
  • Saduqi Suha, Manuchihr, Tarikh-i hukama wa 'urafa-yi muta'akhkhir, 2nd edition, Tehran, 1381 SH.
  • Qaraqani, Mahdi, Jahangir khan Qashqa'i, Isfahan, 1371 AH.
  • Kitabi, Sayyid Muhammad Baqir, Rijal-i Isfahan, dar 'ilm wa 'irfan wa adab wa hunar, Isfahan, 1375 AH.
  • Mu'allim Habibabadi, Mirza Muhammad 'Ali, Makarim al-athar, Isfahan, 1374 AH.
  • Mahdawi, Sayyid Muslih al-din, Tazkirat al-qubur ya danishmandan wa buzurgan-i Isfahan, Isfahan, 1348 AH.
  • Humayi, Jalal al-din, Du risali dar falsafi-yi Islami, Tehran, 1398 AH.