Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Khwansari
|Full Name||Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Khwansari|
|Burial Place||Holy shrine of Lady Ma'suma (a), Qom|
|Professors||Muhammad Kazim Khurasani, Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Tabataba'i Yazdi, Shaykh al-Shari'a Isfahani, Muhammad Husayn Na'ini and Aqa Diya' 'Iraqi|
|Students||Imam Khomeini,Sayyid Muhammad Muhaqqiq Yazdi,Murtada Ha'iri Yazdi,Shaykh Musa Zanjani,Ibrahim Khu'i|
|Aqa Diya' 'Iraqi|
|Works||Muntakhab al-ahkam,Dhakhirat al-'ibad, ...|
|Fighting against Britain, supporting Fada'iyan-i Isalam,protesting against the law of Kashf-e Hijab|
Sayyid Muḥammad Taqī Khwansārī (Persian: سیّد محمد تقی خوانساری) (b. 1305/1888 d. 1371/1952) was a Shi'a faqih and Marja' of the 14th/20th century. With the beginning of the World War I in 1332/1914 and engagement of Ottoman Empire in the war with Britain and occupation of some southern parts of Iraq, Khwansari and a group of the clergy students and scholars of Najaf went to fight against occupiers. He was injured during the fights and was exiled to Singapore for 4 years. Then He went to Arak and then to Qom.
After the demise of Ayatollah Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri and before Ayatollah Burujirdi enter Qom, he was Marja'.
He took critical stances against the activities of Muhammad Rida Pahlavi's regime.
He is also famous for the event in which he led Salat al-Istisqa three consecutive days in Qom and finally on the third day it rained heavily after a prolonged drought.
Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Khwansari was the son-in-law of Ayatollah Araki.
Birth and Lineage
Muhammad Taqi was born in Khwansar, in a family that was famous for knowledge, merits and manners. His father was Sayyid Asad Allah Musawi Khwansari. According to some sources, he was a descendant of Imam al-Kazim (a).
He completed the primary studies in Khwansar. In 1322/1904-5 he went to Iraq to continue his studies. He studied fiqh and usul (jurisprudence and prinsiples of jurisprudence) under Muhammad Kazim Khurasani, Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Tabataba'i Yazdi, Shaykh al-Shari'a Isfahani, Muhammad Husayn Na'ini and Aqa Diya' 'Iraqi. He received a certification of Ijtihad from Aqa Diya' 'Iraqi. He also learned Islamic philosophy under Shaykh Ali Quchani.
Fight against British Army
With the beginning of the World War I in 1332/1914 and engagement of Ottoman Empire in the war with Britain and occupation of some southern parts of Iraq, Khwansari and a group of the clergy students and scholars of Najaf started fighting against British occupiers. He was injured and captured by British forces. He was exiled to IndoChina -which was a part of British colonies- for 4 years.
Returned from the exile, he went to his hometown. Then he moved to Arak at the request of Ayatollah Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri Yazdi for teaching in the seminary. In 1340/1922, he immigrated to Qom along with Ayatollah Ha'iri and helped him in the establishment of Hawza 'Ilmiyya of Qom (Islamic Seminary in Qom). He started teaching fiqh and usul. He attended Ayatollah Ha'iri's class as well.
After the demise of Ayatollah Ha'iri, a group of scholars and people accepted him as a Marja'. He, Sayyid Muhammad Hujjat Kuhkamara'i and Sayyid Sadr al-Din al-Sadr were responsible for Seminary of Qom and its students affairs before the arrival of Ayatollah Husayn Burujirdi in Qom. Khwansari played an important role in consolidation of Marja'iyya of Ayatollah Burujirdi and his residence in Qom.
He had numerous students. Some of which are:
- Imam Khomeini
- Sayyid Muhammad Muhaqqiq Yazdi (known as Muhaqqiq Damad)
- Murtada Ha'iri Yazdi
- Shaykh Musa Zanjani
- Ibrahim Khu'i
Khwansari was a political activist. Some of his most important activities are: supporting Fada'iyan-i Isalam, supporting the Movement of Nationalising the Oil Industry of Iran, issuing fatwa on compulsion of participation in the 17th election of the National Consultative Assembly of Iran (Majlis Shurayi Milli-i Iran), protesting against the law of Kashf-i Hijab, and supporting Palestinians after the events in 1326-1327 sh/1947-8 - 1948-9.
He was famous for his spirituality and good manners. The most important reason for this fame was his ascetic life and also the event of Salat al-Istisqa.
While some central regions of Iran was occupied by the Allies during the World War II, in 1323 sh/1944-5, people encountered an unprecedented drought and famine. Thus, in Ramadan/August-September, people of Qom asked him to be the Imam for performing Salat al-Istisqa. Accompanied by 20000 (twenty thousand) people, he went to desert, where they performed the prayer. They performed Salat al-Istisqa three days in a row. On the third day, it rained heavily. It even shocked the Allied forces and was widely covered by the press. Moreover, the event was mentioned in some poems eulogizing him, composed after his demise.
Muhammad Taqi Khwansari passed away on Dhu l-Hijja 7, 1371/August 28,1952 due to digestion and heart disease in Hamadan. He was buried in Balasar mosque in the Holy Shrine of Lady Fatima al-Ma'suma (a), next to his teacher, Ayatollah Ha'iri Yazdi.
Sayyid Muhammad Baqir and Sayyid Muhammad Ali -two of his children- were religious scholars.
- Glosses on 'Urwat al-Wuthqa -written by Al-Sayyid Muhammad Kazim al-Tabataba'i al-Yazdi- which was the outcome of his discussions with Muhammad Ali Araki. It was published along with other scholars glosses and once by Ayatollah Araki's name.
- Muntakhab al-ahkam; his book of practical Islamic laws
- Dhakhirat al-'ibad; an extended book on practical Islamic laws.
- Glosses on Manasik al-Hajj, written by al-Shaykh al-Ansari
- Mukhtasr al-Ahkam
- Risalat taqwim al-Salat (treatise)
- The transcript of his fiqh class (transcribed by Muhammad Ali Araki).
- The material for this article was mainly taken from سید محمدتقی خوانساری in Farsi wikishia.