Muhammad Baqir Sabziwari
|Well-Known As||Muhaqqiq Sabziwari|
|Religious Affiliation||Twelver Shi'a|
|Place of Birth||Sabzevar|
|Studied in||Sabzevar, Isfahan|
|Burial Place||Holy Shrine of Imam al-Rida (a), Mashhad|
|Professors||Muhammad Taqi Majlisi, Al-Shaykh al-Baha'i, ...|
|Students||Aqa Husayn Khwansari, Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn Khatun Abadi, ...|
|Permission for Hadith|
|Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn Khatun Abadi, Muhammad Salih Biyabanaki, Muhammad b. 'Abd al-Fattah Tunikabuni|
|Works||Kifayat al-ahkam, Dhakhirat al-Ma'ad fi sharh al-Irshad, ...|
|Friday Prayer leader of Isfahan|
Muḥammad Bāqir b. Muḥammad Muʾmin Khurāsānī Sabziwārī (Arabic: محمد باقر بن محمد مؤمن خراسانی سبزواری) (b. 1017/1608-9 - d. 1090/1679), known as Muḥaqqiq Sabziwārī (Persian: محقق سبزواری), was a Shi'a faqih in the 11th/17th century during Safavid era. He was appointed by Shah 'Abbas II as Shaykh al-Islam and Friday Prayer leader of Isfahan. Therefore, in addition to fiqh, he was an expert in politics; he explained his political thoughts in his book Rawdat al-anwar. Kifayat al-ahkam and Dhakhirat al-Ma'ad are his most important jurisprudential books. Individual compulsion (al-Wujub al-'Ayni) of Salat al-Jumu'a during Major Occultation (al-Ghaybat al-Kubra) was one of his distinguished jurisprudential opinions. He also wrote glosses on the theology section of al-Shifa' written by Avicenna and on Sharh al-Isharat written by Khwaja Nasir al-Din al-Tusi.
Muhammad Baqir b. Muhammad Mu'min Khurasani, known as Muhaqqiq Sabziwari, was born in 1017/1608-9 in Nāmin (نامن), a village near Sabzivar, Iran. After the death of his father, he moved to Isfahan and resided there. Throughout his lifetime, Sabziwari was contemporary with four Safavid kings:
- Shah 'Abbas I (r.996/1587-8 to 1038/1628-9)
- Shah Safi I (r.1038/1628-9 to 1052/1642-3)
- Shah 'Abbas II (r.1052/1642-3 to 1077/1666-7)
- Shah Sulayman (r.1077/1666-7 to 1105/1693-4)
However, most of his political life was during the two latter. Shah 'Abbas II appointed him as Shaykh al-Islam and Friday Prayer leader of Isfahan. He sincerely advised Shah 'Abbas II in some issues for improvement. He advised the governors to encourage pious and committed scholars to accept judgeship.
Shah 'Abbas II granted him the teaching in Mulla 'Abd Allah Shushtari school. Finally, he passed away on Rabi' I 8, 1090/April 19, 1679 at the age of 72 in Isfahan. His body was moved to Mashhad and was buried next to Shaykh Hurr al-'Amili's grave in Mirza Ja'far school which is now in the Holy Shrine of Imam al-Rida (a).
His teachers, from whom he had received the certification of Ijtihad and narration of hadiths, are:
- Muhammad Taqi Majlisi
- Al-Shaykh al-Baha'i
- Haydar Ali Isfahani: who was his teacher in fiqh and hadith.
- Qadi Mu'izz al-Din
- Mir Findiriski
- Sayyid Husayn b. Haydar al-'Amili
- Nur al-Din Ali b. Husayn b. Abi l-Hasan al-'Amili
- Sayyid Sharaf al-Din Ali b. Hujjat Shulistani
- Husayn b. Haydar Qamar Karki
- Hasan Ali Shushtary
- Yahya b. Hasan Yazdi
- Maqsud b. Zayn al-'Abidin Astar Abadi
- Husayn Mashghari al-'Amili
- Ja'far b. 'Abd Allah Huwayzi Kamari'i Isfahani
- Hasan b. Salan Gilani Timjani
- Aqa Husayn Khwansari: He was the husband of Sabzivari's sister.
- Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn Khatun Abadi: He spent most of his time with Muhaqqiq Sabzivari and received the certification of narration of hadith form him.
- Muhammad b. 'Abd al-Fattah Tunikabuni, known as Sarab: Muhaqqiq Sabzivari gave him the certification of narration of hadith in 1081/1670-1.
- Mir Muhammad Salih Khatun Abadi
- Muhammad Shafi' b. Faraj Gilani: Muhaqqiq Sabzivari gave him the certification of narrating al-Sahifat al-Sajjadiyya in 1085/1674-5.
- Jamal al-Din Khwansari
- Mirza 'Abd Allah Afandi Isfahani: the author of Riad al-'ulama' wa hiyad al-fudala'.
- Muhammad Salih Biyabanaki: Muhaqqiq Sabzivari gave him the certificate of narration of hadith in 1074/1663-4.
- 'Abd Allah Ardabili.
Many Shi'a scholars, such as Shaykh Hurr al-'Amili, Muhammad b. Ali Ardabili, Sayyid Ali Khan Shirazi, Muhaddith Qummi, Mirza Muhammad Ali Mudarris Tabrizi, the author of Rayhanat al-Adab, Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Khwansari, Mirza 'Abd Allah Afandi and Sayyid Jalal al-Din Ashtiyani have mentioned his biography and praised him.
Jurisprudential and Political Views
In addition to fiqh, he had political views, which he has explained in his book Rawdat al-anwar al-'Abbasi. In this book, he talks about rules of governance, people's rights on governors, the causes of decline and survival of governments and ….
Muhaqqiq Sabzivari is one of Shi'a faqihs (jurists) who believed that Friday prayer is an individual compulsory act (al-Wajib al-'Ayni) during the Major Occultation (al-Ghaybat al-Kubra). He also has authored a treatise in this regard.
- Kifayat al-ahkam: is a book on fiqh containing all its chapters. It is also called Kifayat al-muqtasid and Kifayat al-fiqh. Some glosses and commentaries have been written on this book.
- Dhakhirat al-Ma'ad fi sharh al-Irshad: is a jurisprudential book that contains the chapters of Taharat to the end of Hajj. This book is a commentary on Irshad al-adhhan written by 'Allama al-Hilli. Some commentaries have been written on this book.
- Khilafiyya: is a book in Persian about 'Ibadat (acts of worship). He wrote it for Shah 'Abbas Safavi. The book is divided into an introduction and three chapters. In the beginning he explained Usul al-Din (Principles of Religion) and then he counts Furu' al-Din (Ancillaries of Religion).
- Risalat fi tahrim al-ghina': is a treatise about the prohibition of Ghina' and music, in which Muhaqqiq Sabzivari has discussed the verses and hadiths about this prohibition.
- Risalay-i dar fiqh: is a Persian treatise which he has written for Shah 'Abbas II. It contains all chapters of fiqh.
- Risalay-i 'amaliyya (Practical laws): Muhaqqiq wrote this book in 1081/1670 for his Muqallids after the request of Mirza Mahdi b. Mirza Rida Husayni.
- Risalay-i dar namaz Jum'a: is a Persian treatise about Salat al-Jumu'a. He also has written as Arabic treatise about this topic.
- Al-Hashiya 'ala sharh al-isharat: is his glosses on Sharh al-isharat written by Khwaja Nasir al-Din al-Tusi. He finished this work on Dhu l-Qa'da 8th, 1075/May 23, 1665.
- Al-Hashiya 'ala al-Shifa' : is his glosses on the theology section of al-Shifa' written by Avicenna. In his glosses, he only explained the difficult parts of the book and did not discuss the arguments and criticisms.
- Mafatih al-najat al-'Abbasi: is a book containing well-known and narrated supplications form Ahl al-Bayt (a). The book consists of an introduction - about the merits, rituals and acceptance times of supplications - and 27 chapters. Muhaqqiq Sabzivari authored this book at the request of Shah 'Abbas II and finished it on Sha'ban 17th, 1056/September 28, 1646.
- Rawdat al-anwar al-'Abbasi: Muhaqqiq Sabzivari authored this book in 1073/1662-3 at the request of Shah 'Abbas II. The book consists of an introduction - about why people need a king and the causes of decline and survival of governments - and two chapters.
- Sharh Hadith Birr al-Walidayn: is a commentary on the hadith of doing good to parents. He authored this book on his way to Hajj in 1062/1651-2. He wrote it as a reminder for Shaykh Shams al-Din Husayn b. Muhammad Shirazi.
- Ikhtiyarat al-ayyam: is an inquiry about auspicious and inauspicious days in Islamic, Persian and Roman calendars. The book consists of an introduction, three chapters and an ending.
- Sharh Zubdat al-usul: is a commentary on Zubdat al-usul written by al-Shaykh al-Baha'i.
- Al-Rad 'ala Risalat shubhat al-istilzam: is his response to criticisms of Muhaqqiq Khwansari on his treatise about Shubhat al-Istilzam (concomitance problem).
- Sharh Tawhid al-Saduq.
- Rawdat al-abrar
- Diwan ash'ar (poem collection)
- Kitab al-Mazar
- Manasik al-Hajj
- Risalay-i dar namaz wa ruza (in Persian)
- Risalat fi l-Ghusl
- Risalat fi tahdid al-nahar al-shar'i
- Mirza Ja'far Sabzivari Isfahani: was one of Shi'a faqihs (jurists) in Isfahan. He was Shaykh al-Islam of Isfahan and his descendants occupied this position for more than two centuries. He was buried adjacent to Masjid Hakim in Isfahan.
- Mirza 'Abd al-Rahim Shaykh al-Islam: was one of Mujtahids in Isfahan in the 12th/16th century. He was Shaykh al-Islam of Isfahan and passed away in 1181/1767-8.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from محمد باقر سبزواری in Farsi Wikishia.