'Ali Akbar Hikami Yazdi

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Personal Information
Well-Known As Hakim Ilahi
Birth circa 1267/1850-1
Residence Yazd
Studied in Isfahan and Tehran
Death 1344/1925-6
Burial Place Shaykhan Cemetery, Qom
Scholarly Information
Professors Muhammad Rida Qumshi'i, Jahangir Khan Qashqa'i
Students Imam Khomeini, Mirza Ahmad Ashtiyani, Sayyid Abu l-Hasan Rafi'i Qazwini, ...

Āqā Mīrzā ʿAlī Akbar Ḥikamī Yazdī (Persian: آقا میرزا علی اکبر حکمی یزدی ) (b. ∽ 1267/1850-1 - d. 1344/1925-6) also known as Ḥakīm Ilāhī (Persian: حکیم الهی) (literally: the Divine Wise), was one of the great teachers of philosophy and mysticism in his time in Qom. Imam Khomeini was one of his students.

Rasa'il-i hikamiyya and Majmu'a-yi rasa'il are a few of his books. Some of his works vanished after he passed away.

He was buried in Shaykhan cemetery in Qom. The day he passed away, Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri Yazdi canceled his class in his honor.

Birth and Lineage

He was born around 1267/1850-1 in Yazd. His father, Mirza Abu l-Hasan Yazdi, was a businessman in Yazd.

Education

Isfahan

From a young age, he was eager to acquire knowledge. He studied literature and other fields in his hometown and then he went to Isfahan where he studied al-Asfar (written by Mulla Sadra) and Qiysari's commentary on Fusus al-hikam under Muhammad Rida Qumshi'a, and Sharh-i manzuma under Jahangir Khan Qashqa'i.[1]

Tehran

Afterward he learned intellectual sciences from Aqa 'Ali Mudarris Tihrani and Mirza Abu l-Hasan Jilwa, mathematics from Mirza Husayn Sabziwari. With arrival of Aqa Muhammad Rida Qumsha'i in Tehran, they met again.[2] Hikami learned traditional sciences from Abu l-Qasim Nuri Tihrani, Sayyid Sadiq Tabataba'i, and Muhammad Hasan Ashtiyani.[3]

Migration to Qom

He arrived at Qom a little while before the Constitutional Revolution (Mashruta).[4] He married, lived, and taught intellectual and traditional sciences there until he breathed his last.[5].[6] Remaining evidences from him shows that he was interested in political issues and also in participation in social issues.[7] People referred to him to settle their disputes.[8] Apparently, anti-philosophy and anti-mysticism groups did not have a good opinion about him.[9]

Students

He was among famous teachers of philosophy and mysticism in his time.[10]Sayyid Jalal al-Din Ashtiyani[11] believed that his knowledge in mathematics was more comprehensive than in theology or other fields. He had many students in Qom and Tehran. Some of the most famous ones are:

Hikami had a very good relationship with Badi' al-Mulk and Badi' al-Mulk considered himself as one of his students and also published some of Hikami's works.

Demise

Hakim Yazdi passed away from cancer in 1344/1925-6 in Qom and was buried in Shaykhan cemetery.[13] Hajj Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri Yazdi –jurist and founder of Islamic seminary of Qom- canceled his class on the day he passed away in his honor.[14]

Works

Majmu'a-yi rasa'il-i kalami wa falsafi wa milal wa nihal

Due to illness Hakim Yazdi could not compile, edit, and publish his works, thus some of them vanished after he passed away.[15]

  • Rasa'il-i hikamyya, a part of what has survived, which is all in Persian, was published under this title in Tehran in 1407/1986 with his son's (Mahmud Hikami) efforts.
  • Majmu'a-yi rasa'il-i kalami wa falsafi wa milal wa nihal (treatises about theology, philosophy and sects and creeds) encompass another part of his works, which includes Arabic and Persian writings, and is published with an introduction by Ghulam Husayn Ibrahimi Dinani in Tehran in 1416/1995-6. Some of his works that have been published in this book are: Hikmat al-muta'aliya treatise, Milal wa nihal treatise, Annotations on Qiysari's commentary on fusus al-hikam, Annotations on al-hikma al-muta'aliya fi l-asfar al-'aqliya al-arba'a.
  • Hikmat 'Imadiyya, this treatise which is a Persian translation and commentary of Al-Durrat al-fakhira –written by 'Abd al-Rahman Jami- based on what Hikami Yazdi had said and is written by Badi' al-Mulk Mirza.[16]

According to Badi' al-Mulk,[17] he studied the treatise of Masha'ir (written by Mulla Sadra) under Hikami Yazdi. In the introduction of Persian translation of the Masha'ir treatise, he says that in addition to using Hikami Yazdi's sayings, he has gathered and written them, and then showed the book to his teacher –Hikami Yazdi- and named it 'Imad al-hikma. Also he asked Hikami several philosophical questions, some of which he has answered.[18] Probably the reason of asking these questions was Badi' al-Mulk's familiarity with the Western philosophical issues.[19] According to Mujtahidi,[20] Badi' al-Mulk Mirza's questions from Hikami are remarkably important and could be counted as a key for entering one of the eras of intellectual transition in Iran and Iranians' encounter with new Western philosophy.

His non-published works:

Hikami was a poem composer as well, and his pen name was Tajalli, also he was skillful in various types of calligraphy.[22]

Notes

  1. Mudarris Yazdī, Muqaddima-yi kamara'ī, p. 13; Muḥaqqiq Dāmād, Nukhbigān-i ʿilm wa ʿamal-i Irān, p. 109.
  2. Mudarris Gīlānī, Muntakhab muʿjam al-ḥukamā, p. 123; Ṣadūqī Suhā, Tārīkh ḥukamā wa ʿurafā-yi muta'akhkhir, p. 454; Muḥaqqiq Dāmād, Nukhbigān-i ʿilm wa ʿamal-i Irān, p. 112.
  3. Āgā Buzurg Tihrānī, Al-Dharīʿa, vol. 13, p. 339; Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 8, p. 176.
  4. Mudarris Gīlānī, Muntakhab muʿjam al-ḥukamā, p. 123; Muḥaqqiq Dāmād, Nukhbigān-i ʿilm wa ʿamal-i Irān, p. 113.
  5. Muḥaqqiq Dāmād, Nukhbigān-i ʿilm wa ʿamal-i Irān, p. 113.
  6. Mudarris Yazdī, Muqaddima-yi kamara'ī, p. 14, 16.
  7. Muḥaqqiq Dāmād, Nukhbigān-i ʿilm wa ʿamal-i Irān, p. 113.
  8. Muḥaqqiq Dāmād, Nukhbigān-i ʿilm wa ʿamal-i Irān, p. 115.
  9. Imām Khomeinī, Ṣaḥīfa-yi nūr, vol. 18, p. 79.
  10. Jāmī, al-Durrat al-fākhira, p. 166; Ṣadr al-Dīn Shīrāzī, Muqaddima-yi Āshtīyānī, p. 111.
  11. Ṣadr al-Dīn Shīrāzī, Muqaddima-yi Āshtīyānī, p. 111.
  12. Mudarris Gīlānī, Muntakhab muʿjam al-ḥukamā, p. 123; Mudarris Yazdī, Muqaddima-yi Ḥikamī Yazdī, p. 22-23; Jāmī, al-Durrat al-fākhira, muqaddima-yi Mūsawī Bihbahānī, p. 166-167; Sharīf Rāzī, Ganjīna-yi dānishmandān, vol. 4, p. 429.
  13. Mudarris Gīlānī, Muntakhab muʿjam al-ḥukamā, p. 123.
  14. Mudarris Yazdī, Muqaddima-yi kamara'ī, p. 16.
  15. Mudarris Yazdī, Muqaddima-yi Ḥikamī Yazdī, p. 19.
  16. Muḥaqqiq Dāmād, Nukhbigān-i ʿilm wa ʿamal-i Irān, p. 111-112.
  17. Badīʿ al-Mulk, ʿImād al-ḥikma, p. 74-75.
  18. Muḥaqqiq Dāmād, Nukhbigān-i ʿilm wa ʿamal-i Irān, p. 128-129.
  19. Mujtahidī, Āshnā'ie-yi Irānīyān bā falsafahāyi jadīd-i gharb, p. 270.
  20. Mujtahidī, Āshnā'ie-yi Irānīyān bā falsafahāyi jadīd-i gharb, p. 265.
  21. Āgā Buzurg Tihrānī, Al-Dharīʿa, vol. 13, p. 339; Ṣadūqī Suhā, Tārīkh ḥukamā wa ʿurafā-yi muta'akhkhir, p. 175; Muḥaqqiq Dāmād, Nukhbigān-i ʿilm wa ʿamal-i Irān, p. 126.
  22. See: Muḥaqqiq Dāmād, Nukhbigān-i ʿilm wa ʿamal-i Irān, p. 126-128.

References

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  • Badīʿ al-Mulk, Mīrzā ʿImād al-Dawla. ʿImād al-ḥikma. Translation and commentary of the book Mashāʿir by Ṣadr al-Dīn Shīrāzī. Edited by Henry Corbin. Tehran: 1363 Sh.
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