|Full Name||Muhammad Danishzada Qummi|
|Well-known As||Muhammad Mu'min|
|Religious Affiliation||Twelver Shi'a|
|Birth||January 12, 1938|
|Place of Birth||Qom|
|Place of Residence||Qom|
|Death||February 21, 2019|
|Burial Place||Holy Shrine of Lady Fatima al-Ma'suma (a)|
|Professors||Imam Khomeini, Sayyid Muhammad Muhaqqiq Damad, Allama Tabataba'i, Murtada Ha'iri Yazdi, Ali Mishkini|
|Works||Al-Wilaya al-ilahiyya al-Islamiyya, Tasdid al-usul, Jayigah-i ahkam-i hukumati wa ikhtiyarat-i wali-yi faqih|
|Activities||one of the jurisprudents in the Guardian Council, a theorist of the Guardianship of the Jurisprudent, a representative in the Assembly of Experts for the Leadership|
Muḥammad Dānishzāda Qummī (Persian:محمد دانشزاده قمی) (b. 1357/1938- d. 1441/2019), known as Muḥammad Mu'min, was a Shi'a jurist of the fifteenth/twenty first century, a theorist of the Guardianship of the Jurist, one of the jurists in the Guardian Council, and a representative in the Assembly of Experts of the Leadership in Iran. Mu'min was one of the clergies who fought against the Pahlavi government, and since 1964 until his death, he was a member of the Society for Teachers of the Seminary of Qom. In 1974, in the period of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's government, he lived in exile in Iran for three years: in Shahdad near Kerman and Tuyserkan.
After the victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran, Mu'min played a crucial role in the formation of the Judiciary Council. He was a member of the Higher Judicial Council, a member of the Higher Council of the Islamic Seminary, a member of the Council for the Revision of the Constitution, and the head of the Seminary of Qom. He was one of the jurists in the Guardian Council and a representative in the Assembly of Experts for the Leadership in Iran. Mu'min wrote a number of books about the Islamic government. His most important work concerning the wilaya (or guardianship) of the Infallibles, as well as the Guardianship of the Jurist, is al-Hukuma al-islamiyya in three volumes.
Muhammad Mu'min was born on January 12, 1938, in Qom. His father Abbas Mu'min was a farmer. After studies in Maktabkhana and the school of religious teachings, he began to study in the Islamic seminary. In the first year of his study in the seminary, he also served as a teacher in order to make a living. His teachers in the Seminary of Qom included Imam Khomeini, Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i, and Ali Mishkini.
Before the Islamic Revolution, he was a member of the Society for Teachers of the Seminary of Qom. From 1974 to 1977, he lived in exile. After the Islamic Revolution, he served in the Judiciary System, the Guardian Council, the administration of Islamic Seminaries, and for five terms as a representative in the Assembly of Experts.
He died on February 21, 2019 after a period of illness. The funeral procession took place on Saturday, February 23, in Qom and after the funeral prayer led by Ayatollah Subhani, he was buried in the holy shrine of Lady Fatima al-Ma'suma (a).
Muhammad Mu'min began his seminary studies in 1951. He finished preliminary and intermediary levels of his studies within five years and then attended Imam Khomeini's advanced lectures of jurisprudence. He also attended the lectures of Muhaqqiq Damad, Murtada Ha'iri Yazdi, and Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i. After teaching al-Makasib and al-Rasa'il in jurisprudence and its principles, as well as Sharh al-Tajrid, Bidayat al-hikma, Nihayat al-hikma, al-Asfar, and al-Arshiyya in theology and philosophy, he began teaching advanced courses of the principles of jurisprudence since 1983 and advanced courses of jurisprudence since 1985. In the latter courses, he taught issues of transactions, judgeship, testimonies, hudud, and modern issues concerning government. In 1992, Muhammad Mu'min and a number of other scholars were appointed by Ayatollah Khamenei as members of a group for the examination of new jurisprudential issues. Muhammad Mu'min was also a member of a group who discussed jurisprudential issues with Ayatollah Khamenei. Mu'min recounts some of these issues in his Kalimat Sadida.
- Muhammad Taqi Sutuda
- Muhammad Wa'izzada Khurasani
- Ali Mishkini
- Muhammad Shahabadi
- Abu l-Fadl Khwansari
- Muhammad Baqir Sultani
- Muhammad Mujahidi
- Ayatollah Burujirdi
- Imam Khomeini
- Sayyid Muhammad Muhaqqiq Damad
- Murtada Ha'iri Yazdi
- Sayyid Mustafa Khomeini
- Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i
- Fadil Harandi
- Sayyid Mahmud Yathribi
After Imam Khomeini's exile, Muhammad Mu'min went to Najaf in 1964 and stayed there for six months. During Imam Khomeini's stay in Najaf, Mu'min frequently went there and attended the lectures of Imam Khomeini as well as Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei, Husayn Hilli, Sayyid Mahmud Husayni Shahrudi, and for a short time, in Sayyid Muhsin al-Hakim's lectures.
Muhammad Mu'min's work can be classified into three groups: jurisprudence, principles of jurisprudence, and philosophy. Some of his works are his transcriptions of the lectures of his own teachers; for example, he transcribed and rewrote Imam Khomeini's lectures on jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence, as well as Muhaqqiq Damad's lectures. His book concerning principles of jurisprudence is Tasdid al-usul. The rest of his works are mostly concerned with Islamic government and the obligations of the Jurisprudent Guardian. In his Hukumat-i hakimana and Hikmat wa hukumat, he criticizes Mahdi Ha'iri Yazdi's writings about the Islamic government.
Work Concerning Islamic Government
- Al-Wilaya al-ilahiyya al-Islamiyya aw al-hukuma al-Islamiyya zaman hudur al-ma'sum wa zaman al-ghayba (3 volume)
- Wilayat-i Imam wa Payambar bar amr-i qanun guzari-yi kulli
- Wilayat-i Imam wa Payambar bar Jami'a-yi Islami
- Jaygah-i ahkam-i hukumati wa ikhtiyarat-i wali-yi faqih
- Barrasi-yi wazaif wa hudud-i ikhtiyarat-i wali-yi faqih
- Manabi'-i mali dar hakimiyyat-i faqih
- Amwal wa tharwatha-yi umumi dar hukumat-i Islami
- Hukumat-i hakimani; Naqd wa barrasi-yi nazariyya-yi hikmat wa hukumat
Before the Islamic Revolution of Iran, Muhammad Mu'min was a member of the Society for Teachers of the Seminary of Qom. In 1970, after the death of Sayyid Muhsin al-Hakim, the Society announced Imam Khomeini as a marja'. In 1973, SAVAK tried to arrest Mu'min, but to no avail. In 1974, Mu'min was arrested, and then he was banished to Shahdad and Tuyserkan for three years.
After the Islamic Revolution
After the victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran, Mu'min was in charge of positions in the Islamic Republic of Iran, including as the head of the Higher Court of the Islamic Revolution, a member of the Higher Judicial Council, a representative in the Assembly of Experts for five terms, a member of the jurists of the Guardian Council, and the manager of the Seminary of Qom. Muhammad Mu'min was also an examiner of volunteers for membership in the Assembly of Experts.
After the Islamic Revolution, Muhammad Mu'min played a crucial role in the formation of the Judiciary System. He cooperated with the system in the selection of judges, in the appeal court, and the Higher Judicial Council until 1983. After that, he served as a member of jurists of the Guardian Council. He was a representative in the Assembly of Experts for five terms. In addition to his governmental positions, he also served in the administration of Islamic seminaries.
- In charge of the selection of judges for Revolutionary Courts and sending them around the country at the command of Imam Khomeini
- The head of the Higher Court of the Islamic Revolution
- A member of the Higher Judicial Council until 1983.
The Guardian Council and the Assembly of Experts
- Membership in the Guardian Council at Imam Khomeini's decree since 1983 until his death.
- A representative in the Assembly of Experts for five terms (the first and second terms from Semnan and the third, fourth, and fifth terms from Qom).
- The manager of the Seminary of Qom
- A member of the Higher Council of Seminaries from 1992 to 1995
- A member of the fourth term of the Higher Council of the Seminary of Qom
- The head of the Assembly of Ahl al-Bayt's Jurisprudence.
Jurisprudential and Political Views
The most important work by Muhammad Mu'min concerning political jurisprudence is al-Wilaya al-ilahiyya al-islamiyya aw al-hukuma al-islamiyya. According to Feirahi, his view is the most authoritarian account of the appointment and mandates of the jurist. His view is important because of his long-time membership in the Guardian Council and his impact on laws and decisions.
For Mu'min, all rulings are in the hand of the Jurist Guardian, and thus, other jurists do not have authority in the judiciary and government. In his view, the enforceability of the rule of the Infallible and the Guardianship of the jurist does not come from consultations, allegiances, and votes. To the contrary, elections derive their legitimacy from the ruler's views. Moreover, the legitimacy, dissolution, or continuation of the legislative assembly and all other institutes depend on the decision of the Supreme Leader. The core of the Islamic government is the Supreme Leader and these institutes only serve as "legislative helpers" of the jurist, rather than people's representatives. In fact, they follow the wills of the Jurist Guardian. Thus, in Mu'min's view, the rule of the jurist is unqualified, encompassing all places and all times.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from محمد مؤمن in Farsi Wikishia.