|Author||Hasan b. Zayn al-Din al-Amili|
|Original title||مَعالِم الدین وَ مَلاذ المُجْتَهِدین|
|Subject||Jurisprudence and Principles of jurisprudence|
Maʿālim al-dīn wa malādh al-mujtahidīn (Arabic: مَعالِم الدین وَ مَلاذ المُجْتَهِدین), known as Maʿālim (مَعالِم), is a book concerning jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence written by Hasan b. Zayn al-Din al-Amili, the son of al-Shahid al-Thani. The book consists of two parts: jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence, but it is mainly known for the latter part, which came to be known as Ma'alim al-usul.
The part concerning jurisprudence includes only the issues of cleanliness (tahara); it does not include all parts of jurisprudence. According to the author, by writing the book he aimed to provide a better understanding of jurisprudential issues and a textbook of jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence in Islamic seminaries. According to Aqa Buzurg Tihrani, the book was a Shiite seminary textbook for about two hundred years. Many expositions and commentaries have been written for the book.
- Main article: Hasan b. Zayn al-Din al-Amili
Hasan b. Zayn al-Din, the son of al-Shahid al-Thani, known as "Sahib al-Ma'alim" (the author of Ma'alim), was a Shiite jurist and a scholar of principles of jurisprudence in early eleventh/late sixteenth century. He died in 1011/1602. By writing the book, he aimed to provide a seminary textbook and facilitate the understanding of jurisprudence. At the end of the book, the author writes, "the writing of this book came to an end at the dawn of Sunday, Rabi' al-Thani 2nd, 994 [March 23, 1586]".
Ma'alim al-din wa maladh al-mujtahidin, known as Ma'alim, is a book concerning jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence written by Hasan b. Zayn al-Din, the son of al-Shahid al-Thani. The book consists of two parts: jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence. The latter part, also known as Ma'alim al-usul, was, according to Aqa Buzurg Tihrani, taught as a textbook in Shiite seminaries for about two hundred years. Thus, its jurisprudential part was overshadowed by its part concerning principles of jurisprudence. The jurisprudential part does not include all parts of jurisprudence; it only includes cleanliness (tahara). It is believed that this is the reason why this part was ignored.
Style of Writing
The author of Ma'alim elaborates issues of jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence in the book. In the part concerning jurisprudence, he only deals with tahara (cleanliness) and its details. In this part, he usually states his espoused ruling, and then shows how it is inferred from relevant evidence and reasons, and if the ruling involves ancillaries and other dimensions, the author provides an assessment thereof. The other part of the book is concerned with principles of jurisprudence. The author argues for his fundamental views about issues of principles of jurisprudence and raises objections to rival views. Ma'alim is characterized by its structure, logical organization, the order of its subject-matters, and its chapters concerning more specific problems.
Expositions and Commentaries
Aqa Buzurg Tihrani lists many expositions of the book. According to Mudarrisi Tabataba'i, Hasan b. Zayn al-Din wrote a well-structured introduction to his book, Ma'alim, which paved the path for discussions about issues of principles of jurisprudence in the form of commentaries and expositions, which have been helpful contributions to the discipline. The most precise views of principles of jurisprudence in eleventh/seventeenth century are said to be those of Husayn b. Rafi' al-Din al-Mar'ashi (d. 1064/1654) known as Sultan al-Ulama' who wrote commentaries on Ma'alim.
Manuscripts of the book are available in the Library of Iranian Majlis and the Library of Ayatollah Mar'ashi Najafi, the hand-writings of which date back to 1001/1593, 1079/1668, 1245/1829, 1261/1845. Some of these manuscripts were proof-read on the basis of the original manuscript with the author's own hand-writing.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from معالم الدین و ملاذ المجتهدین (کتاب) in Farsi WikiShia.