'Ali Shari'ati

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'Ali Shari'ati
Ali shariati.jpg
Epithet Doctor Shari'ati
Religious Affiliation Shia
Well-known Relatives Muhammad Taqi Shari'ati (father)
Birth Sha'ban 5, 1352/November 23, 1933
Place of Birth Kahak in Sabzivar, Khorasan
Places of Residence Mashhad, Tehran
Death/Martyrdom Rajab 2, 1397/June 19, 1977
Cause of
Death/Martyrdom
Iranian newspapers declared he died because of heart attack
Burial Place Damascus
Works After the demise of 'Ali Shari'ati his works were published in collection forms which are available now in 36 volumes; each volume contains a number of handwritten works, speeches and pamphlets from him.

ʿAlī Mazīnānī (Farsi: علی مزینانی; b. 1933 - d. 1977) known as ʿAlī Sharīʿatī (علی شریعتی) or Doctor Shari'ati was a Shi'a intellectual and theologian whose ideas and theories influenced the formation of Islamic Revolution of Iran in 1979. Shari'ati's speeches in Husayniyya Irshad and a number of universities between 1968-1976 was presented to his addressees which were later published in forms of books and a collection of thirty six volume books.

Shari'ati's ideas and theories about Islam, Islamic Protestantism, religious intellectualism, Shi'ism, Alavi Shi'ism and Safavi Shi'ism as well as his relations with clergymen were always opposed and criticized by different groups. A number of researchers believed foundation and activities of some groups including Furqan group were originated based on Shari'ati's theories.

Morteza Motahhari, Mahdi Bazargan, 'Ali Abu l-Hasani, Sayyid Hamid Rowhani and the journal of School of Islam were the main critics and oppositions of 'Ali Shari'ati. About thirty books have been published in rejection of Shari'ati's thoughts. In addition, about three hundred Farsi and Arabic books have been published about Shari'ati himself.

Life and Education

'Ali Shari'ati was born on the Sha'ban 5, 1352[Note 1]/November 23, 1933 in Kahak (کاهک), a village in Sabzevar, Iran. His father, Muhammad Taqi Shari'ati was the founder of the Center of Publication of Islamic Truths (Kanun Nashr-i Haqayiq-i Islami) and he was a modernist exegete of the Qur'an. Akhund Mulla Qurban'ali was the paternal grandfather of Shari'ati who was a prominent student of Mulla Hadi Sabziwari.

Shari'ati studied elementary and secondary schools in Mashhad. He became a teacher in 1952. Shari'ati studied Persian literature in the University of Mashhad in 1958 and after a year he was granted scholarship. Shari'ati continued education in Paris where he was given Ph.D. degree in 1963. "Translation and Gloss on Manuscript of Fada'il al-Balkh Safi al-Din" was the title of Ph.D. thesis of 'Ali Shari'ati.

'Ali Shari'ati married Fatima (Puran) Shari'at Radawi in 1958 in Mashhad. He had four children named Ehsan, Susan, Sara, and Mona.

Shari'ati returned to Iran in 1964 and he was imprisoned for six months because of his overseas political activities against Pahlavi Regime. He started teaching in University of Mashhad in 1966 as associate professor in history of Islam; Shari'ati taught Islamic studies in that time. He was among the main speakers in Husayniyya Irshad in Tehran whose speeches attracted a large number of the young and university students.

In 1972 when Husayniyya Irshad was closed, Shari'ati hid for a while. After some time he introduced himself to the police and he was imprisoned accordingly. When Shari'ati was released, he was living under supervision of SAVAK (Organization of Intelligence and National Security) agency for three years and he was not allowed to have political activities, give speeches and publish books.

'Ali Shari'ati passed away in Rajab 2, 1397[Note 2]/June 19, 1977 in London. Iranian newspapers declared he died because of heart attack in London where he travelled to cure his eyes and heart problems. Relatives of Shari'ati claimed that he was not suffering from any heart problems at all. Also a number of revolutionary groups claimed that he was martyred in London and they called him Shari'ati the martyr.

Eventually, Shari'ati was buried in June 26, 1977 in Damascus near the holy shrine of Lady Zaynab (a); Imam Musa al-Sadr and Shari'ati's relatives attended the funeral ceremony.

Teachers and Influential Figures and Movements

'Ali Shari'ati was influenced by different figures and movements. As he wrote himself, he dedicated the whole intellectual and belief-related aspects of his life to "believing in 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a), family of Prophet Muhammad (s) and revolutionary movement which brings justice and freedom." He has also stated that he will analyze not just the events after the demise of Prophet Muhammad (s) but also the evolutions in history of mankind by means of Shi'ite approach. He has also believed Lady Fatima (s) was the precious person that connected Prophethood to Imamate as they are the main principles in historical fate of the notion of Salvation and the movement of seeking justice.

Shari'ati has declared that he was influenced by 1950s figures including Maurice Maeterlinck, Arthur Schopenhauer, Frantz Kafka, and Sadeq Hedayat as he described getting to know them took him from a peaceful and definite inherited religion toward massive hurricane and wild oceans which brought confusing thoughts of the philosophies after two world wars to him. Shari'ati declared that he was influenced by grand Islamic scholars as well as sociology figures including Georges Gurvitch, Raymond Aron and scholars of Islam including Louis Massignon, Jacques Berque, Branshvik, and Henri Masse. In addition, researchers believe Shari'ati was influenced by intellectual movements of the time including:

The Center of Publication of Religious Truths

'Ali Shari'ati became a member of the Center of Publication of Religious Truths (Kanun Nashr-i Haqayiq-i Islami) where he was engaged with Islamic and Shi'ite culture. The center was founded in 1953 by Muhammad Taqi Shari'ati, 'Ali's father, and it provided the situations for education of exegesis, Quranic theology and religious teachings; it also had social impacts as well.

The Movement of God-Worshipping Socialists

'Ali Shari'ati became a member of the Movement of God-Worshipping Socialists when he was a university student in Mashhad and he was a member of the Party of People of Iran, a branch of the Movement of God-Worshipping Socialists, until he was living in Iran. Intellectual principles of Shari'ati's theories in that time where influenced by this movement especially the ideas of Muhammad Nakhshab. He also translated the book Aba Dhar written by 'Abd al-Hamid Jawda al-Sihar to Farsi, which was published in 1955 as "Abu Dhar al-Ghifari, the Socialist God-Worshipper" with some extra parts.

Re-construction of Religious Thought: Sayyid Jamal al-Din Asadabadi

The movement of Religious Revive or the Movement of Reconstruction of Religious Thought influenced Shari'ati as well. Its prominent figures were Sayyid Jamal al-Din Asadabadi, Shaykh Muhammad 'Abduh, Sayyid Qutb, and Iqbal Lahuri. Similar to these figures, Shari'ati was seeking a return to the Qur'an, achieving a new exegesis adaptable to the time so that revolutionary and social Islam could replace fundamentalist Islam. In his book Ma wa Iqbal (Iqbal and Us), he stated that knowing Sayyid Jamal al-Din Asadabadi and Iqbal Lahuri is equal to knowing Islam and Muslims and knowing the present and the future time.

Western Intellectual and Philosophical Tendencies

'Ali Shari'ati became familiar with theories of Raymond Aron, Jacque Berque, Henry Corbin, Frantz Fanon, Roger Garaudy, Georges Gurvitch, Louis Massignon, and Jean-Paul Sartre in 1960s in France. Some researchers believe Shari'ati's references to intellectuals including Hegel, Marx, Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger and Herbert Marcuse represents the fact that he was influenced by the school of German and French intellectuals. Because 'Ali Shari'ati emphasized on the differences between Human and Humankind and the usage of concepts such as Anarchist and having choices from Sartre, Nietzsche and Heidegger shows that Shari'ati was influenced by Existentialism.

The School of Separation

Some researchers believe, disagreement of Shari'ati with Greek and Sinai philosophies and his strong criticism of some philosophers as well as his adherence to a number of founders of the School of Separation including Shaykh Mahmud Halabi represent that he was influenced by the School of Separation. The economic attitudes of Shari'ati in 1960s and his negative approaches about free market which was derived from Socialism as well as the School of Separation and his dear friend Muhammad Reza Hakimi.

Approaches and Theories

'Ali Shari'ati proposed different ideas and theories; however, 'Abd al-Husayn Khosro Panah stated that the main emphasis of Shari'ati was disambiguation of religious knowledge, the holy Qur'an and Sunna. The prominent theories of Shari'ati are:

Islamic Studies and Ideological Islam

'Ali Shari'ati was teaching Islamic studies courses in the University of Mashhad 1966-1967 which were mainly about the biography and lifestyle of Prophet Muhammad (s) and a number of his companions. He also delivered speeches in Husayniyya Irshad about Islamic studies in which he explained his principles about Islam.

According to Shari'ati's ideas, Islam was not only about its cultural aspects nor its collection of Islamic sciences including theology, fiqh and philosophy but it was also about the main purposes of religion: freedom, equality, salvation of masses and honoring of the wretched. Based on Shari'ati the transformation of Islam from a culture to an Ideology was the most important incident and the most magnificent event of his time. Shari'ati always desired to return Islam to an Ideology which he pursued. He believed Ideological Islam is not a step backward but it will revive Islam and it will give it an intellectual renaissance.

According to Shari'ati, Ideology is insight, exceptional awareness and belief which explains social direction, lifestyle and the ideal situation of individuals, society and mankind. It also shows the way between the current situation and the ideal situation.

Some researchers believe, ideologicalization of religion, was among the most important achievement of Shari'ati which played an important role in the victory of Islamic Revolution of Iran and it influenced a large number of political parties and groups even after the revolution.

Islamic Protestantism

Based on Shari'ati's thoughts, an intellectual should work to form an Islamic Protestantism so that it erupts thoughts and brings in new energy to society. He mentioned Christian Protestantism which evolved in medieval age in Europe and remove all the obstacles put on thoughts and the fate of society by the name of religion. Shari'ati criticized an understanding of Islam which he stated "does not derive us and make us silent and still; it also postpone all of our hopes until the time after our death."

Islamic Protestantism, according to Shari'ati, is a correction of religion by means of opposing superstitions, solidity and blind prejudice. It is a complete rejection of Islamic and religious concepts which justifies class system and autocracy. In other words, returning religion to its original root, making movement and intellectual, social and scientific evolution based on the Qur'an and Sunna.

Ahmad Naqibzadeh, a professor at Tehran University, believed Shari'ati wanted to be the Martin Luther King of Iran and he made efforts to found Protestantism as Luther King opposed Church he also wanted to stand against clergymen. Naqibzadeh believed Shari'ati failed in achieving this goal.

Enlightenment

'Ali Shari'ati called the intellectuals as aware and dedicated individuals. He also emphasized on their prophecy and mentioned multiple duties upon them:

  • Direct Relations with Society: As Shari'ati has stated that intellectuals should not only rely on theories and scientific hypotheses, they should also know their society and its history directly; besides they should have a relationships with people.
  • Being Aware of Society, Religion and Islamic Culture: Shari'ati believed intellectuals should acquire the material of their works from society and the time. While disagreement of intellectuals with the religion will make distance between society and awareness. He mentioned the fourth verse of Sura Ibrahim (a), and said those who dedicated themselves to awakening and guidance of people, should know and use the language people speak. He believed intellectuals are tasked with the role of leadership and guidance. Shari'ati emphasized that knowing the language of people is not only honoring people and giving them tasks, but also it will lead to familiarization with culture, sensibilities, agonies, wishes and intellectual and social atmosphere.
  • Reviving the Religion: Shari'ati stated that intellectuals should regard Islam a school which revive humans, individuals and society. They also have the responsibility of leadership of the future of humanity. Intellectuals are tasked with awakening society and giving them awareness in a society which people are suffering from immobility and decline.
  • Return to the Self: Shari'ati believed returning to the self and discovery of our personality is the vital prophecy of intellectuals in Islamic countries. He stated that in order to return to the self we should refer to Holy Qur'an, Sira of Prophet Muhammad (s) and his companions. In addition, we should refer to personality of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) and his speeches, history of Islam, and its magnificent culture.

Shi'a Studies

'Ali Shari'ati believed Shi'ism is the original truth of Islam. He added Shi'ism of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) was based on two important principals: Imamate and justice. Shari'ati assumed Shi'ism is a comprehensive party which has ideology, political and economic directions and a two hundred and fifty year background of resistance of Shi'ite Imams (a). He thought until the foundation of Safavid dynasty, Shi'ism had an anti-tyranny approach and scholars, devotees and poets were protecting the religion based on principals of Ahl al-Bayt (a). Shari'ati believed after the foundation of Safavid the Red (Revolutionary) Shi'ism changed to Black Shi'ism and the school of martyrdom was changed to school of mourning.

'Ali Shari'ati described mourning and grieving in Shi'ism as a progressing and revolutionary tradition in repression era of tyrants which helped in increasing faith. However, he criticized some rituals in mourning ceremonies which were influenced by Christianity and he tried to eliminate superstition from the religion. He also condemned the notion of enjoying the good and forbidding the evil should be exercised only in individual level.

The attitude of Shari'ati toward Shi'ite concepts and teachings were based on Islam and revolutionary Shi'ism. He was also regarded as an admirer of secularization of religion and execution of Islamic Protestantism. Here are a number of his theories:

Imam and Imamate

'Ali Shari'ati regarded Imam and Imamate not only a belief-related matter but also he mentioned the social aspect of it which is notable characteristic as Umma (Muslim community) choose their path under the leadership and guidance of Imam. He regarded Imam, a superior human not a super-human. He believed Umma is humane society which all the individuals have a common goal and they act based on a common leadership toward their ideal purpose. They not only share their thoughts, opinions and religion but also they share similar actions.

According to Shari'ati's works, Imamate is a (timely) limited revolutionary system with a purpose of changing an ignorant benighted society to a cultural, political and belief-related advanced society. He believed that society does not need the thirteenth and fourteenth Imams after the Twelfth Imam (a) as it can grow based on Bay'a (oath of allegiance), democracy and council.

'Abd al-Husayn Khosrow Panah believed 'Ali Shari'ati has put the divine and creative wilaya (guardianship) of Imamate aside, and he degraded it to a political regime. He also criticized Shari'ati's idea about rejection of eternal Imamate and limitation of Imamate to twelve Imams. He added Imamate is an eternal system which will continue after the martyrdom of the twelfth Imam (a) by return of Imamate to other Imams. Khosrow Panah believed the theory of Shari'ati about Imamate will lead to deletion of different aspects of Islam and its sole reliance on the revolutionary aspect.

Alavi Shi'ism and Safavid Shi'ism

'Ali Shari'ati believed Shi'ism was an opposition against deviation from the true Islam. Shi'ism itself suffered from the fate that all the other religions suffered throughout history, Safavid Shi'ism was formed alongside the true version of Shi'ism called Alavi Shi'ism. It was based on justice, Wilaya and Imamate of Imam Ali (a). 'Alavi Shi'ism massively opposed oppression and ultimate power as it tried to save the oppressed and deprived classes. While Safavid Shi'ism was supporting Shahs and monarchies. ' Shari'ati stated that Safavid Shi'ism was different from Safavid dynasty, he believed that Safavid Shi'ism was formed alongside 'Alavi Shi'ism but it was officially accepted by Safavid dynasty. He stated that Safavid Shi'ism changed Shi'ism to a state religion, as a result it became an institution which was used for political slavery, while it receded from the original purposes of Shi'ism: justice and performing religious duties. a Such ideas of Shari'ati are stated in his book Tashayyu'-i 'Alavi wa Tashayyu'-i Safavi (translated as Red Shi'ism vs. Black Shi'ism). A number of researchers, including Rasul Ja'fariyan, believed this theory led to formation of Furqan group who terrorized Morteza Motahhari.

Shari'ati and Clergymen

'Ali Shari'ati had different approaches toward clergymen, sometimes he opposed them fiercely and sometimes he got along with them. Some researchers believe Shari'ati's disagreements with clergymen was not a matter of sentiments or class and opposing Islam or Shi'ism but it was a matter of believing in revolutionary Islam. In his book "Ba Mukhatabhaye Ashna" (To Acquainted Addresses) which contains his letters to different people, he talked about Islam without clergymen; he also said with the death of clergymen, Islam would surely continue its existence. In his book, Khosrow Panah said Shari'ati's attitude toward clergymen was due to anti-clergymen approach of Furqan group and terrorizing clergymen figures including Morteza Motahhari and Muhammad Mufattih.

Shari'ati believed throughout history Shi'ite scholars unlike Sunni scholars, were living among people and they refrain from achieving power. But in Safavid era, they were in governmental positions and changed the Shi'ism which was always against the current situation into a Shi'ism approving the current situation. 'Ali Shari'ati criticized clergymen for emphasizing too much on Philosophy, theology, fiqh and usul al-fiqh while the talents in seminaries should also focus on the tasks of having discussions with people, conveying the truths and knowledge about religious facts, lifestyle of Prophet Muhammad (s) and the event of Karbala which were given to those without any talent to become mujtahid.

Shari'ati stated in his book that his opposition with clergymen is actually opposing exercising Taqiyya in facing the rulers and behaving duplicitously with people. Although he praised Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Asad Abadi, Mirza Shirazi, Sayyid Hasan Mudarris, Mirza Kuchak Khan, Muhammad Khiyabani, Sayyid Mahmud Taliqani and Ayatollah Khomeini, he believed they were not originated from the common existing spirit in seminaries.

Rasul Ja'fariyan stated that Shari'ati's attitude toward Shi'ite clergymen was derived from his belief on the two concepts of Alavi Shi'ism and Safavi Shi'ism. He added as Shari'ati persistently believed in these two concepts, he became pessimist about clergymen. Although Shari'ati praised Ayatollah Burujirdi and Imam Khomeini, he also condemned al-'Allama al-Majlisi and Ayatollah Milani and he also criticized them sharply; in a number of sources Shari'ati accepted that he criticized them roundly.

Critics and Oppositions

'Ali Shari'ati was always criticized and opposed by different religious and political groups. Here are a number of them:

  • Morteza Motahhari: He thought attitudes and ideas of Shari'ati were against basic religious teachings. Although he believed in fighting based on Islam, he disagreed with prioritizing it as a principle while neglecting other aspects of religion; he sometimes called this attitude of Shari'ati tendency toward Marxism. Motahhari also wrote a critique on Shari'ati's work, "Husayn warith-i Adam" (Husayn the Heir of Adam), he regarded it a work which justified history based on Marxism and a Marxist mourning on Imam al-Husayn (a).
  • Mahdi Bazargan: He had similar attitudes toward Shari'ati as Motahhari. Bazargan believed limiting religion only on Fiqh, ethics and worship is equally betrayal as limiting religion on sword and jihad. In addition, Sayyid Husayn Nasr a modern traditionalist stated that Shari'ati movement was poisoning the saint atmosphere of tradition and disturbing spiritual peaceful situation of religion.
  • A number of seminaries in 1960s and 1970s including Dar al-Tabligh Islami affiliated with Ayatollah Shari'atmadari, the journal of Maktab-i Islam (the School of Islam), Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi and Misbah Yazdi all criticized Shari'ati's attitudes and theories. Different exegeses of Shari'ati's ideas and theories on historical events and especially Quranic verses were the roots of such criticisms as they found Shari'ati's ideas against original religious narrations including Shari'ati's exegesis on the story of creation of Adam and Eve.
  • 'Ali Abu l-Hasani was a contemporary historian who wrote a book in 1982 in which he stated the goal of Shari'ati was interpreting outer aspect of being religious to inner aspect of atheism and materialism. He also emphasized on a number of documents written by Morteza Motahhari who called Shari'ati a dependent intellectual planning to deviate religion and promote atheism under the name of religion.
  • A number of traditionalist clergymen and religious non-combatant groups were among the firsts who criticized Shari'ati. They believed he was not a Shi'ite man and he planned to destroy Shi'ism. These groups also labeled him a person who opposed Wilaya. They called "Husayniyya Irshad" where Shari'ati gave speeches, "Yazidiyya Izlal" (a place of misleading).
  • Sayyid Hamid Rowhani a contemporary historian after the Islamic Revolution of Iran, he used letters, documents and reports of SAVAK to prove that Shari'ati was supporting this organization. His ideas were analyzed and responded abundantly.

Shari'ati's Role in Islamic Revolution in Iran

A large number of researchers believe, Shari'ati's ideas and theories played important role in formation of Islamic revolution of Iran in 1979. In addition some believed the intellectual and literal atmosphere in 1970s in Iran was influenced by Shari'ati's ideas. As a result sometimes 'Ali Shari'ati was regarded as the "Teacher of Revolution" in Iran.

Works

'Ali Shari'ati had numerous speeches, books and written works which were published during his lifetime and also after his demise. In addition, a large number of works and books were written on praising and criticizing him.

Speeches and Conferences

'Ali Shari'ati gave speeches in both private meetings and public gatherings in Husayniyya Irshad, Tehran University, the university of Shiraz and the university of Abadan between 1968 to 1976 which involved sixty six subjects including studies of Islam, the history of religions, and Hajj. His speeches were also given to people in audio formats which are available now as well. About one hundred pamphlets and books were published before the Islamic Revolution of Iran in 1979.

After the demise of 'Ali Shari'ati his works were published in collection forms which are available now in 36 volumes; each volume contains a number of handwritten works, speeches and pamphlets from him. For example, his speeches and works on Hajj are published in the sixth volume and his works on the history of civilization are published in the eleventh and the twelfth volumes and his works on Imam al-Husayn (a) and martyrdom are published in the 19th volume.

"Husayn warith-i Adam" (Husayn the Heir of Adam), "Fatima Fatima ast" (Fatima is Fatima), "Pedar madar ma muttahamim" (Father and Mother We Are Accused), "Simay-i Muhammad" (the portrayal of Muhammad (s)) and "'Ali" (a) were the most important works written by 'Ali Shari'ati.

Translation

'Ali Shari'ati translated a number of books between 1956 – 1969:

  • Abu Dhar al-Ghifari, written by Juda al-Sihar in 1955 which was translated and published as "Abu Dhar-i Ghifari awwalin khuda parast-i susialist" (Abu Dhar al-Ghifari, the first Socialist God-Worshipper" in Mashhad.
  • "Fi l-Naqd wa l-Adab" written by Muhammad Mandur; it was translated in 1959 as About Critic and Literature.
  • Translation of the book Prayer by Alexis Carrel in 1960.
  • Articles of Frantz Fanon about Guerilla Warfare between 1960 – 1963 translated in Iran-e Azad Newspaper.
  • Translation of the book Salman Pàk et les Prémices Spirituelle de l'Islam about Salman al-Farsi by Louise Massignon in 1969.

Books Translated into English

Twenty six books into English:

  1. A Glance at Tomorrow's History, 1985, p.24.
  2. An Approach to Understanding of Islam , Trans, Venus Kaivantash (The Shariati, Foundation, and Hamdami Publishers, Tehran, 1979).
  3. And Once again Abu Dhar, 1985, p, 75.
  4. Art Awaiting The Saviour , Trans, Homa Farjadi (Shariati Foundation and Hamdami Publishers, Tehran 1979).
  5. Capitalism Wakes UP?!, Trans Mahmoud Mogscni, (The Ministry of Islamic Guidance, Tehran, 1981).
  6. Civilization and modernization, (Aligarh, Iranian Students Islamic Association, 1979).
  7. Culture an Ideology, 1980, p.23.
  8. Fatima is Fatima, Trans, Laleh Bakhtiar (Shariati Foundation and Hamdami Publishers, Tehran, 1980).
  9. From Where Shall we Begin and Machine in the Captivity of Machinism, 1980, p.52.
  10. Hajj, Trans, Ali Behzadnia and Najla Denny.
  11. Islamic View of Man, Trans, Ali Behzadnia and Najla Denny.
  12. Man and Islam, Trans, Ghulam M.Fayez (University of Mashhad Press, Mashad, Jahad Publications, 1982).
  13. Man and Islam, Trans ; Dr. Fatollah Marjani (Free Islamic Literature-Filinc, Houston, Texas, 1981).
  14. Martyrdom, Arise and Bear Witness, Trans, Ali Asghar Ghassemy (Ministy of Islamic Gudance, Tehran, 1981).
  15. Marxism and Other Western Fallacies: An Islamic Critique, Trans, R. Campbell (Berkely, Mizan Press, 1981).
  16. One Followed By An Eternity of Zeros , Trans, Ali Asghar Ghassemy (The Hosseiniyeh Ershad and the Hamdami Publishers, Tehran, 1979).
  17. On The Sociology of Islam, Trans", Hamid Algar (Berkely, Mizan Press, 1979).
  18. Red shiism, Trans, Habib Shirazi (The shariati Foundation and Hamdami Publishers, Tehran, 1979).
  19. Retlection of A Concerned Muslim on The Plight of Oppressed Peoples, Trans" , Ali Behzadnia and Najla Denny.
  20. Selection and of Election, Trans, Ali Asghar Ghassemy (The Hosseniyeh Ershad and Hamdami Publishers, Tehran, 1979).
  21. The Visage of Mohammed, 'Trans, A. A. Sachadin (Nor. Oqalam Publications, Lahore, 1983).
  22. Ye Brother, That's The Way it Was, Trans, Nader Assaf (Shariati Foundations and Hamdami Publishers, Tehran, 1979).
  23. Awaiting the Religion of Protest Translated by: Shahyar Saadat.
  24. What is to be done? Edited & Anotated by: Farhang Rajaee/ Forword by: John L. Esposito.
  25. Martyrdom, Trans, lale Bakhtiar and Hossein Saleh, (Abowzar faundation, Tehram, Iran).
  26. Hajj, trans, S.M.Farough, (Islamic faundation, India, 1989)

A large number of Shari'ati's works have been translated into different languages. Eighteen books were translated into Arabic and fifty nine books into Turkish. Also some books were translated into Kurdish, Urdu, Indonesian, Albanian, Tamil, Thai, Bengali, German, Italian, French, and Spanish.

Works About Shari'ati

About two hundred and ninety six books about 'Ali Shari'ati were published in Farsi and Arabic in Iran until 2011. Also about 538 books had a part about Shari'ati as well.

In addition about thirty books were written on rejecting Shari'ati's theories, the majority of them were written after the Islamic revolution of Iran.

External Links

The official website of 'Ali Shari'ati

Notes

  1. Azar 2, 1312SH
  2. Khordad 29, 1356SH