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Talqin

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This article is an introduction to the Talqin; to read its text see text:Talqin.
From Death to Resurection
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Talqīn al-mayyit (Arabic: تلقین المیت) consists in some phrases regarding Islamic beliefs that are recited for the deceased before burying his or her corpse. Talqin is a recommended part of burying a corpse, according to jurisprudence, it had better be performed both before and after filling the grave with soil when participants of the funeral return. Talqin is also recommended when the person is about to die. The phrases for Talqin mentioned in Mafatih al-jinan come from different hadiths in this regard. The phrases are slightly different for men and women.

History

Talqin was common since the time of the Prophet (s).[1] Shiite Imams (a) also taught their followers how to do talqin a deceased person.

According to a hadith from the Prophet (s): "do talqin to your deceased with "Lā ilāha illā Allāh" (Arabic: لا اله الّا الله) (there is no god except Allah) before their death. He whose last word is "lā ilāha illā Allāh" will go to the Heaven."[2]According to Shiite sources, the testimony for imamate comes after the testimony for tawhid and also prophethood of the Prophet (s).[3]

Procedures

Al-'Allama al-Majlisi devised a procedure for talqin in his Bihar al-anwar on the basis of hadiths. The same procedure is also cited in the addenda of Mafatih al-jinan.[4] Here is the procedure:

When the corpse is placed inside the grave, the knots of the shroud should be untied and soil should be placed on the corpse's face with a headrest of soil and some clod on its back. And before filling the tomb with soil, one should put his hand on the corpse's shoulder, approaching his mouth to the corpse's ears, and while shaking the corpse, recite a supplication three times.

Effect

According to hadiths, talqin and similar practices help one after their death, though they do not have a decisive role. The main decisive factor in one's life after death is their own deeds and beliefs throughout their worldly lives. Some misdeeds may neutralize the effects of talqin, as Imam al-Sadiq (a) is reported to say: "at the time of the Prophet (s), a man from Medina was sick and about to die, and he lost his ability to talk. The Prophet (s) went to him and told him: "say that there is no god except Allah". The man could not reiterate the phrase. There was a woman there. The Prophet (s) asked her: "is his mother still alive?" She replied: "I am his mother." The Prophet (s) told her: "are you satisfied with him?" "No", she answered. The Prophet (s) asked her to forgive him, and she did so. Then the Prophet (s) told him to say "La ilaha ill Allah" (there is no god except Allah), and this time he could reiterate it.[5]

Notes

  1. Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol. 3, p. 176.
  2. Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 1, p. 132.
  3. Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 1, p. 134.
  4. Qummī, Mafātīḥ al-janān, under the part of Talqin.
  5. Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 1, p. 132.

References

  • Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt li-Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth, 1409 AH.
  • Qummī, Shaykh ʿAbbās al-. Mafātīḥ al-janān.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh. Tehran: Nashr-i Ṣadūq, 1367 Sh.

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