Ṭulaqāʾ (Arabic: طُلَقاء, literally: the emancipated) was a group of the Quraysh and enemies of the Prophet Muhammad (s) who were given amnesty by the Prophet (s) after the Conquest of Mecca. Abu Sufyan and Mu'awiya were the most prominent members of Tulaqa'. In his battle with Mu'awiya, Imam 'Ali (a) characterized Tulaqa' as people who always fought with Islam, but converted to it reluctantly. During her captivation in Syria, lady Zaynab (a) referred to Yazid as the son of Tulaqa'. Some historians refer to Banu Umayya as "Hizb al-Tulaqa'" (Party of the Emancipated).
"Tulaqa'" literally means emancipated prisoners. Terminologically speaking, it refers to a group of the Quraysh who were emancipated after the Conquest of Mecca, although they deserved punishments. They include Abu Sufyan, Sahl b. 'Amr, Huqaytib b. 'Abd al-'Uzza, and Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan. On some accounts, before the Conquest of Mecca, Tulaqa' said: "leave Muhammad (s) with his own people [or relatives]. If he defeats them, then we will convert to Islam too, and if they defeat him, then they have saved us from him."
Banu Umayya were called "Tulaqa'" after they were called so by the Prophet (s). When she was captivated after the Event of Karbala, lady Zaynab (a) delivered a sermon in which she referred to Yazid as "Ibn al-Tulaqa'" (the son of the Emancipated). In later periods, Banu Umayya were referred to by some people as "Hizb al-Tulaqa'".
Imam Ali's (a) Reference to Tulaqa'
In the Battle of Siffin, Imam Ali (a) delivered a sermon addressed to his companions in which he characterized Tulaqa' as follows: "prepare for a battle with enemies who are Tulaqa' and children of Tulaqa'. They reluctantly converted to Islam and have always fought with Islam." Imam Ali (a) referred to them as enemies of the Qur'an and the tradition of the Prophet (s), heretics, and bribers.
According to al-Baladhuri, 'Umar b. Khattab believed that Tulaqa' and their children were not qualified for governmental positions.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from طلقاء in Farsi WikiShia.