After the Demise of the Prophet (s)
The following took place at the time of the Third Caliph:
- 'Uthman told Arqam b. 'Abd Allah, the guardian of the public treasury, "Loan me 100 thousand Dirhams." Arqam told him, "Write and give me a receipt for the Muslim records." 'Uthman told Arqam, "O motherless! You don't need that! You are our treasurer!" When Arqam had heard this, he ran to people and shouted, "O people! Guard your possessions! I thought I am the treasurer of your possessions and I did not know I am the treasurer of 'Uthman b. Affan!" He told the people this and went home.
- 'Uthman then went to the pulpit of the mosque and said, "O people! Indeed, Abu Bakr prioritized Banu Taym over others and 'Umar prioritized Banu 'Adi over others (Abu Bakr was from Banu Taym and 'Umar was from Banu 'Adi); and I swear I will prioritize Banu Umayya over all other people. And if I sit in the Paradise and I can enter all Banu Umayya in it, I certainly will do so - since this possession is ours and we will take from it whatever we need, even though others do not like it."
- 'Ammar b. Yasir, who was present in the mosque, said, "O Muslims! Beware I dislike this!" 'Uthman said, "Oh, you are here too?!" Then, he came down from the pulpit and hit him down and kicked him so much that 'Ammar fell unconscious and was taken to the house of Umm Salama.
- When 'Uthman heard that 'Ammar was in the house of Umm Salama, he sent someone to her with the message, "Why have these people and this villain come to your house? Force them out of your house!" Umm Salama said, "I swear to God, there is no one in my house except Ammar and his two daughters! O 'Uthman, leave us alone and force other people. This man is the friend and companion of the Prophet (s) who is about to die because of what you have done to him!"
- In a later incident, 'Ammar went to the Mosque of the Prophet (s) while 'Uthman was being given the news of Abu Dhar's lonely death. ('Uthman had banished him to the desert of Rabadha because of his opposition.) 'Uthman said, "'Indeed we belong to Allah, and to Him do we indeed return.' (2:156), May God bless his soul." 'Ammar said, "May God shower His Mercy on Abu Dhar on behalf of us all!" 'Uthman turned to 'Ammar and told him, "Then, it will be your turn to go there… (and he obscenely swore at 'Ammar). Do you think I regret that I banished him [Abu Dhar]?!" 'Ammar said, "No, I swear to God I do not think so." 'Uthman said, "Go to where Abu Dhar was and do not return while we are alive!" 'Ammar said, "I will go! I swear to God that living with wild animals of the desert is more desirable for me than being with you." 'Ammar was preparing himself to leave when Banu Makhzum, whom he was allied with, went to Imam 'Ali (a) and asked him to dissuade 'Uthman from banishing 'Ammar. Imam 'Ali (a) went with them and Uthman accepted his (a) request.
At The Time of Imam 'Ali's Caliphate
- You are pledging your allegiance to us on the basis of our adherence to God's commandments and the Prophet's tradition. If we give up adhering to this, we do not have the right to ask your obedience. The Quran is our Imam and your Imam.
The Prophet's (s) News: 'Ammar's Martyrdom by a Group of Rebels
The Prophet (s) had narrated regarding 'Ammar's death, "'Ammar will be murdered by a group of rebels." Ibn 'Abd al-Birr considered this hadith to be Mutawatir [frequently narrated] and says that is among the most authentic hadith.
Khuzayma b. Thabit, who was present in the battles of Jamal and Siffin, did not draw his sword until he saw that 'Ammar was martyred in Siffin by the army of Mu'awiya. He then said, "Now, the ignorant group is known to me!" and began to fight for Imam 'Ali (a) until he was killed.
After 'Ammar was martyred, Imam 'Ali (a) prayed over his body, shrouded him in his own cloak and buried him without doing the ritual ablution. 'Ammar was over 90 years old at the time of his death.
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- Al-Mufid, PP.82-5
- Ibn Sa'd, Vol.3, P.251-3