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Battle of Jamal

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Battle of the Camel
Date Mid Jumada II or Jumada II, 10 or Jumada I, 10 in 36/656
Location Al-Khurayba near Basra
Result Victory of Imam Ali (a)
Cause A group of Muslims who had broken their oath with Imam Ali (a) waged a war against him.
Commanders
Imam Ali (a) Aisha, Talha and Zubayr
Strength
More than 700 or based on another report 19,000-20,000 3000 or based on another report 30,000 or more
Casualties
400 to 5000 2500

The Battle of Jamal (Arabic: معرکة الجمل, lit. Battle of the Camel), the first war during Imam Ali's (a) caliphate, took place between Nakithun (Oath-breakers) and army of Imam Ali (a) in 36/656. This battle was waged by A'isha, the Prophet Muhammad's (s) wife, Talha and Zubayr in a region near Basra; which ended with the victory of Imam Ali's forces over Nakithun. Although Talha and al-Zubayr had taken oath of allegiance to Imam Ali (a) as the fourth caliph of Muslims, after some time they both traveled to Medina in order to perform Hajj pilgrimage, where they broke their oath and planned to fight against Imam 'Ali (a). As a result, this battle is also known as the battle of Nakithun (oath-breakers). Nakithun claimed to avenge the death of 'Uthman b. 'Affan, the third caliph of Muslims.

The Battle of Jamal resulted in the transition of caliphate's center from Medina to Kufa in Iraq. Since a fight had broken among a number of companions and the caliph, it prepared the ground for the emergence of new theological and jurisprudential political theories among Muslims.

The battle of Jamal (camel) is regarded as the first civil war of Muslims which started significant differences among Muslims.