A'yan Family

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A'yan Family
EraThe late 3rd/ninth till fourth/eleventh century
LineageA'yan b. Sunsun al-Shaybani
Well-known Figures
FiguresZurara b. A'yan • A'yan b. Sunsun al-Shaybani
ScholarsHumran b. A'yanBukayr b. A'yan Abu Ghalib al-Zurari

Āl Aʿyan (Arabic:آل أعیَن, A'yan family), is one of the famous Shi'a clans, who lived from the late first/seventh century to the fourth/tenth century.

This clan, especially Zurara b. A'yan, played an important role in spreading and reviving the teachings of Ahl al-Bayt (a). They have offered such a great service that Imam al-Sadiq (a) has approved and praised Zurara a lot.

A'yan b. Sunsun al-Shaybani, Zurara b. A'yan, Humran b. A'yan (Abu Hamza), Bukayr b. A'yan (Abu Jahm), and Abu Ghalib al-Zurari are the most famous members of this clan.


This clan is related to "A'yan b. Sunsun". Among Shi'a clans, Al A'yan is the family with the longest period of scholarly services. The members of the clan mostly resided in Kufa and hence are called "al-Kufi" as well; although some of them moved to other places. They lived in a special neighbourhood in Kufa. There was a mosque in the neighbourhood, in which Imam al-Sadiq (a) had performed prayer. The neighbourhood existed until 334/945-6 when Qaramatians destroyed it in their attack on Shi'a, during which Al A'yan were greatly harmed.[1]


Since the time of Imam al-Sajjad (a) (b. 38/658-9 - d. 94/712-3), the members of this clan were known for their affection for the Prophet's (s) progeny. Some members of the clan who met with Imam al-Sajjad (a) were famous for their expertise in theology, jurisprudence, hadith, and other scholarly fields. Throughout the life of Shi'a Imams (a), some members of the clan were among the great religious and scholarly figures who were close companions of the Imams (a). Abu Ghalib al-Zurari, a famous member of this clan, reported that Al A'yan consisted of sixty people. He introduced them as follows: "We are from a clan that God has conferred a great favour upon, He accepted us to embrace his religion and favoured us with companionship with His friends from the beginning to the time that Shi'a encountered calamities and disasters (Major Occultation)".[2]

First Shi'a of Al A'yan

Without a doubt, Sunsun was a Christian monk and naturally, his son, A'yan, was Christian too. After that A'yan was captured by Muslims, he was taken to the tribe of "Banu Shayban" where he embraced Islam. Muhammad Taqi Shushtari says, A'yan was a Sunni Muslim, and consequently, his sons were Sunni; however, some of them become Shi'a later.[3]

It is also possible that A'yan was Shi'a from the beginning but he hid his true faith due to the repression practiced by the Caliphs. Later, many of his sons found out the truth after their intellectual maturity and became Shi'a. The first member of Al A'yan who became Shi'a was 'Abd al-Malik b. A'yan, who became Shi'a by Salih b. Maytham, and then his brother, Humran b. A'yan, who became Shi'a by Abu Khalid al-Kabuli.[4].[5] However, according to another report, the first member of Al A'yan who became Shi'a was Umm al-Aswad, 'Abd al-Malik's sister, who Abu Khalid al-Kabuli mainly influenced.[6]

Famous Members

A'yan b. Sunsun al-Shaybani

Lexically, A'yan means one with wide eyes. His father, Sunsun or Sunbus, was a Christian monk in a city of the Roman Empire. A'yan was captured as a slave, and a man from Banu Shayban bought him in Halab and took him to Kufa. He later became a pious and righteous Muslim, memorized the Qur'an after a while, and became an expert in Arabic grammar. His master freed him and asked him to become a member of the tribe of Banu Shayban. Although he did not accept this offer, he and his descendants are known as "al-Shaybani". Some said that A'yan was an Iranian who met with Ali b. Abi Talib (a) and became Muslim in his presence and became one of his companions.[7] However, the majority of rijal scholars do not confirm such a report. What is certain is that A'yan and the known members of his descendants - except for a few - were Shi'a and famous for their affection and support for the Shi'a Imams (a).

Zurara b. A'yan al-Shaybani

Zurara (d. 150/767-8) was a Shi'a muhaddith, jurist, theologian and author. He is one of the most famous Shi'a muhaddiths and one of the most eminent students of Imam al-Sadiq (a). However, his personal life remains unknown. He was very strong in theology, polemics, and argumentation that he emerged victorious in most of the discussions and debates; thus he received the special attention of Imam al-Sadiq (a) and also Shi'a. He also was a companion of Imam al-Baqir (a) (b. 57/676-7 - d. 114/732-3) and has narrated a lot of hadiths from him. Some rijal scholars regarded Zurara as an unreliable narrator as there are some hadiths – said to be about twenty - dispraising him.[8] However, considering his high and important status among the narrators from Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Sadiq (a) and many hadiths praising and approving him - he was introduced as the most honest person in his time[9] - no doubt will remain in his faith, knowledge, devotion, trustworthiness, and reliability. He played such an important role in spreading and reviving the teachings of Ahl al-Bayt (a), that Imam al-Sadiq (a) said, "God bless Zurara, were it not for Zurara and narrators like him, my father's words would have perished".[10]

In another hadith, Imam al-Sadiq (a) explicitly counted him among those who enter Heaven.[11] In another hadith, Imam al-Sadiq (a) said, "These four are my favorite people: Burayd b. Mu'awiya al-Bajali, Muhammad b. Muslim, Abu Basir, and Zurara".[12] Most rijal scholars believe that the hadiths dispraising Zurara are either da'if (weak) or issued under taqiyya (precautionary dissimulation)[13] circumstances or in special political conditions to save his life.

Another issue discussed by Shi'a scholar about Zurara is whether he accepted the Imamate of Imam al-Kazim (a) (b. 128 - d. 183/ 745-6-799-800) or not.[14] However, the later Imams' approval shows that he had accepted the Imamate of Imam al-Kazim (a).

It is said that Zurara has written some books; however, except for one book - titled al-Istita'a wa l-jabr wa l-'uhud - his other works are not mentioned in rijal sources.[15] Ibn Babawayh al-Qummi said that he had seen his book.[16]

Some claimed that he lived for 90 years.[17] This is not unlikely as some have mentioned him among Imam al-Sajjad's (a) companions.[18]

Humran b. A'yan

Humran was a Shi'a jurist, muhaddith, lexicologist, litterateur, and scholar of Arabic syntax. He was a companion of Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Sadiq (a) and has narrated many hadiths from them, while many narrators have narrated hadith from him. Although some Sunni rijal scholars said that he is not reliable because he is a Shi'a, most Shi'a rijal scholars said that he is reliable and trustworthy. Even some Shi'a rijal scholars believed that he is more reliable than Zurara.[19] Humran studied Arabic syntax under Abu l-Aswad al-Du'ali. Although the exact time of his demise is unknown, there is no doubt that he passed away before Imam al-Sadiq (a).[20] Humran had sons named: 'Uqba, Hamza, and Muhammad, all of whom were companions of Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Sadiq (a). They are regarded as reliable narrators who have narrated many hadiths from the two Imams.

Bukayr b. A'yan

He is regarded as a reliable narrator who has narrated many hadiths from Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Sadiq (a). Although he is very famous, there is no information about his personal life. Bukayr passed away before Imam al-Sadiq (a). He had six sons: 'Umar, Jahm, Zayd, 'Abd Allah, 'Abd al-Hamid, and 'Abd al-A'la, all of whom were among the companions of Imam al-Sadiq (a) and narrated hadiths form him. Although 'Abd Allah - his son - was a jurist, he has been considered a Fatahi.[21]

Abu Ghalib al-Zurari

Ahmad b. Muhammad, known as Abu Ghalib al-Zurari (b. 285/898-9 - d. 368/978-9) was a Shi'a jurist, muhaddith, theologian, and poet. He is the last well-known scholar and muhaddith of Al A'yan. He started to learn hadith when he was eleven. In 356/966-7, he authored Risalat fi Al A'yan (A treatise about A'yan family) which contains brief biographies of the famous members of Al A'yan. He has mentioned his hadith masters and the chains of transmission he has narrated and has dedicated the book to his grandson Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah.

He was a descendant of Bukayr b. A'yan; thus his ancestors were known as "al-Bukayri". However, from the time of Imam al-Hadi (a) (b. 212/827-8 - d. 254/868) he started to be known as "al-Zurari". As he has mentioned, this title started from the time of his grandfather, Sulayman b. al-Husayn. It is said that because of the mother of al-Hasan b. Jahm b. Bukayr, the ancestor of Abu Ghalib, was the grand-daughter of Zurara, he was called al-Zurari.


  1. Abū Ghālib Zurārī, Risāla fī Āl Aʿyan, preface of the book. p. D.
  2. Abū Ghālib Zurārī, Risāla fī Āl Aʿyan, p. 12-18.
  3. Tustarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 2, p. 172.
  4. Qummī, al-Kunā wa l-alqāb, vol.1, p. 131.
  5. Abū Ghālib Zurārī, Risāla fī Āl Aʿyan, p. 135.
  6. Abū Ghālib Zurārī, Risāla fī Āl Aʿyan, p. 130.
  7. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 2, p. 101.
  8. Akmal Bihbahānī, Taʿliqāt ʿalā manhaj al-maqāl, p. 142.
  9. Ṭūsī, al-Fihrist, p. 141.
  10. Abū Ghālib Zurārī, Risāla fī Āl Aʿyan, preface of the book. p. D.
  11. Mūsawī Iṣfahānī, Thiqāt al-ruwāt,vol. 1, p. 305.
  12. Ṭūsī, al-Fihrist, p. 142.
  13. Ṭūsī, al-Fihrist, p. 142.
  14. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 7, p. 53.
  15. Ṭūsī, al-Fihrist, p. 143.
  16. Nāma-yi dānishwarān, vol. 9, p. 83.
  17. Nāma-yi dānishwarān, vol. 9, p. 89.
  18. Abū Ghālib Zurārī, Risāla fī Āl Aʿyan, p. 3.
  19. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 6, p. 234.
  20. Abū Ghālib Zurārī, Risāla fī Āl Aʿyan, p. 4.
  21. Abū Ghālib Zurārī, Risāla fī Āl Aʿyan, p. 4-6.


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