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Bukayr b. A'yan

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Companion of Imam (a)
Bukayr b. A'yan
Bukayr b. A'yan.jpg
His tomb in Damghan
Full Name Bukayr b. A'yan b. Sunsun al-Shaybani al-Kufi
Companion of Imam al-Baqir (a), Imam al-Sadiq (a)
Teknonym Abu Jahm
Lineage Al A'yan
Wellknown Relatives Zurara b. A'yan, Humran b. A'yan (brothers)
Death/Martyrdom 156/773
Burial Place Damghan

Abū Jahm Bukayr b. Aʿyan b. Sunsun al-Shaybānī al-Kūfī (Arabic:أبوجَهم بُکَیر بن أعیَن بن سُنْسُن الشَیبانی الکُوفی) is one of the most famous companions of Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Sadiq (a). His family, Al A'yan is among the first and most important Shi'a families in Kufa. From the 2nd/8th to the 4th/10th century - the beginning of the Major Occultation - some of his descendants were among the eminent faqihs and Muhaddiths. The most famous of them are 'Abd Allah b. Bukayr and Abu Ghalib al-Zurari.

Companion of Imams

Although Bukayr is not mentioned among the companions of Imam al-Sajjad (a), his narration from Imam al-Sajjad (a) shows that he was a companion of him as well.[1]

Certainly, Bukayr was a companion of Imam al-Baqir (a)[2] and Imam al-Sadiq (a).[3] He has narrated hadiths from them directly and sometimes via his brother, Zurara b. A'yan.

Narrated Hadiths

According to Abu l-Qasim Khu'i,[4] 125 hadiths are narrated through Bukayr from Imams in the Four Books, and except for 4 hadiths the rest are jurisprudential ones.[5]

Narrators of His Hadiths

Many Muhaddiths, including 'Abd Allah b. Bukayr, Aban b. 'Uthman, Jamil b. Darraj, Hariz b. 'Abd Allah, 'Abd al-Rahman b. Hajjaj, Ali b. Ri'ab and 'Umar b. Udhayna have narrated hadiths from him.[6]

In some chain of narrators, Muhaddiths like Ibn Abi 'Umayr have narrated from Bukayr. However, because there is a long interval between them, some rijal scholars have studied these chains of narrators and cleared up the problem.[7]

Descendants

Bukayr descendants are known as "Bukayriyyun" or "Wuld Jahm" or - most commonly - al-Zurari[8] (related to Zurara b. A'yan, Bukayr's brother). According to Abu Ghalib, they were known as al-Zurari because the mother of Hasan b. Jahm b. Bukayr was a descendant of Zurara b. A'yan. Perhaps, mentioning this title in the tawqi's of Imam al-Hadi (a) to Sulayman b. Jahm[9] was very effective in spreading it.[10]

Some of his descendants who are known for their fiqh and Hadith are:

'Abd al-Hamid b. Bukayr

'Abd al-Hamid b. Bukayr is one of the companions of Imam al-Sadiq (a) and Imam al-Kazim (a). He has narrated directly from them and sometimes via 'Abd al-Malik b. Bukayr or Muhammad b. Muslim. Narrators such as Muhammad b. Abi 'Umayr, Safwan b. Yahya, Hasan b. Mahbub and Yunus b. 'Abd al-Rahman have narrated hadiths from him.

'Umar b. Bukayr

'Umar b. Bukayr is a companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a).

'Abd al-A'la b. Bukayr

'Abd al-A'la b. Bukayr has narrated hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a). He is confused with his uncle, 'Abd al-A'la b. A'yan in many chains of narrators.[11]

Zayd b. Bukayr and Jahm b. Bukayr

Al-Tusi,[12] al-Najashi,[13] Ibn Dawud al-Hilli,[14] Ghuhpa'i[15] and Amin[16] have mentioned them among the sons of Bukayr.

Sons of 'Abd al-Hamid b. Bukayr

Husayn, Muhammad and Ali, sons of 'Abd al-Hamid b. Bukayr are among the narrators of hadith,[17] although al-Zurari has mentioned them as the sons of 'Abd Allah b. Bukayr.[18]

Hasan b. Jahm b. Bukayr

Hasan b. Jahm b. Bukayr is one of the companions of Imam al-Kazim (a) and Imam al-Rida (a). He is a reliable narrator[19] that has narrated hadiths from great Muhaddiths, such as: Bukayr b. A'yan, 'Abd Allah b. Bukayr, Hammad b. 'Uthman and Fudayl b. Yasar. Narrators such as Ahamd b. Muhammad b. 'Isa, Hasan b. Ali b. Faddal, Ali b. Asbat, Muhammad b. Isma'il and Muhammad b. 'Abd al-Hamid have narrated hadiths form him. One hundred twenty three hadiths, that are mostly jurisprudential, have been narrated form him.[20]

Husayn b. Jahm b. Bukayr

Husayn b. Jahm b. Bukayr is one of the companions of Imam al-Kazim (a) and Imam al-Rida (a). In some rijal books, he is confused with Hasan b. Jahm.[21]

Ali b. Jahm b. Bukayr

Ali b. Jahm b. Bukayr is one of the companions of Imam al-Kazim (a).

Muhammad b. Hasan b. Jahm b. Bukayr

There is doubt whether he was among the companions of Imam al-Kazim (a) or Imam al-Rida (a). There are a few Hadiths narrated by him.[22]

Sulayman b. Hasan b. Jahm b. Bukayr

Sulayman b. Hasan b. Jahm b. Bukayr, known as Abu Ghalib al-Zurari, is one of the great Shi'a figures. He was related to Al Tahir through his mother, therefore he moved with them to Neyshabur and after that Al Tahir returned from Khurasan, he went back to Kufa. For years, the neighborhood that he lived in was known as Al Zurara Shi'a neighborhood.[23]

Muhammad b. Sulayman

Muhammad b. Sulayman, known as Abu Tahir al-Zurari (b. 237/851-52 - d. 301/913-14) is one of the reliable (Thiqa) narrators who had correspondence with Imam Hasan al-'Askari (a). Al-Adab wa l-mawa'iz and al-Du'a are his works. He transmitted the books of some companions of the Imams (a) to later generations.[24] According to al-Zurari[25] and al-Shaykh al-Tusi,[26] he was a close companion of Imam al-Mahdi (a) as well and some Tawqi's have been issued for him. Abu Ghalib's descendants, Muhammad b. 'Ubayd Allah b. Ahmad was also known as Abu Tahir; thus in some chains of narrators he was confused with Muhammad b. Sulayman.[27]

Ali b. Sulayman al-Zurari

Abu l-Hasan Ali b. Sulayman al-Zurari is a Shi'a faqihs and Muhaddith who was very close to Imam al-Mahdi (a). He has even received some Tawqi's from Imam al-Mahdi (a). Al-Nawadir is his book.[28]

Ja'far b. Sulayman al-Zurari

He is counted among the companions of Imam al-Hadi (a).[29]

Other Sons of Sulayman

Moreover, three sons of Sulayman named: Ahmad, Hasan and Husayn are mentioned in Risala fi Al A'yan (a treatise about the family of A'yan), written by al-Zurari.[30]

Demise and Tomb

Bukayr passed away during the lifetime of Imam al-Sadiq (a). After his demise Imam al-Sadiq (a) said, "God place him between his Apostle (a) and Amir al-Mu'minin (a)." In another occasion when Imam al-Sadiq (a) remembered him, he said, "God bless Bukayr, and by God, He did."[31]

A domed shrine in Damghan, Iran is attributed to him. According to the inscription on the iwan of the shrine, the person buried there was a close companions of Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Sadiq (a) and passed away in 156/773. Mutallib Khan, the governor of Damghan, built a shrine with a roughly 3-meter high dome over his grave. The shrine is highly respected and visited by scholars and people of Damghan as Ziyara. Nowadays it is located in Shuhada street and a big, magnificent mosque called Masjid al-Nabi has been built next to it.[32]

Notes

  1. Ṭūsī, al-Fihrist, p. 74; Khoei, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol 3, p. 359.
  2. Ibn al-Nadīm, al-Fihrist, 276.
  3. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 3, p. 599-600.
  4. Khoei, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol 3, p. 360.
  5. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 93, 109, 438.
  6. Khoei, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol 3, p. 360-361; Mazandarani Ḥāʾirī, Muntahā al-maqāl, vol. 2, p. 175.
  7. Khoei, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol 3, p. 362; Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 2, p. 386.
  8. Muwaḥḥid Abṭahī, Tārīkh Āl-i Zurāra, p. 185; Abū Ghālib Zurārī, Risāla fī Āl Aʿyan, vol. 2, p. 11.
  9. Abū Ghālib Zurārī, Risāla fī Āl Aʿyan, vol. 2, p. 11.
  10. Baḥr al-ʿUlūm, Rijāl Baḥr al-ʿUlūm, vol. 1, p. 228-229.
  11. Muwaḥḥid Abṭahī, Tārīkh Āl-i Zurāra, p. 185.
  12. Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 109.
  13. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 222.
  14. Ibn Dāwūd al-Ḥillī, Kitāb al-rijāl, p. 57.
  15. Quhpāʾie, Majmaʿ al-rijāl, vol. 1, p. 279.
  16. Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 3, p. 599-600.
  17. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 222.
  18. Zurārī, Risāla fī Āl Aʿyan, vol. 2, p. 24.
  19. Zurārī, Risāla fī Āl Aʿyan, vol. 2, p. 8.
  20. Khoei, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol 4, p. 295.
  21. Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 1, part. 2, p. 323.
  22. Muwaḥḥid Abṭahī, Tārīkh Āl-i Zurāra, p. 198.
  23. Zurārī, Risāla fī Āl Aʿyan, vol. 2, p. 11-13.
  24. Zurārī, Risāla fī Āl Aʿyan, vol. 2, p. 34-37.
  25. Zurārī, Risāla fī Āl Aʿyan, vol. 2, p. 17.
  26. Ṭūsī, al-Ghayba, p. 181-182.
  27. Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 3, part. 1, p. 22.
  28. Khoei, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol 12, p. 42-43.
  29. Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 412.
  30. Zurārī, Risāla fī Āl Aʿyan, p. 12, 14.
  31. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 160.
  32. Kāzimaynī, Mashāhīr-i wa mafākhir-i Dāmghān, vol. 1, under Bukayr b. A'yan.

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