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Abd Allah b. Abi Ya'fur

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Companion of Imam (a)
Abd Allah b. Abi Ya'fur
Full Name Abd Allah b. Abi Ya'fur al-Abdi al-Kufi
Companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a)
Teknonym Abu Muhammad
Epithet Al-Abdi
Well Known As Ibn Abi Ya'fur
Place(s) of Residence Kufa
Death/Martyrdom 131/749

Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī Yaʿfūr al-Abdī al-Kūfī, (Arabic:ابومحمد عبدالله بن أبي یعفور العبدي الکوفي), (d. 131/749) known as Ibn Abi Ya'fur was a hadith narrator and a companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a). He was accepted as a reliable hadith narrator by Imam al-Sadiq (a) and Imam al-Kazim (a). Also, he is admired and praised in several hadiths.

Lineage

He is considered as al-'Abdi, due to attribution to 'Abd al-Qays b. Aqsa, descendant of Rabi'a b. Nizar.[1] His father, Waqid or Waqdan,[2] was known as Abu Ya'fur al-Akbar.[3] Al-Sam'ani stated his title as Waqdan.[4]

Biography

The information about the biography of Ibn Abi Ya'fur is minimal. Al-Najashi[5] considered him as a grand and valuable companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a). Al-Shaykh al-Tusi[6] mentioned him in his works as Ibn Abi Ya'fur al-Abdi and Abd Allah b. Abi Ya'fur al-Kufi, who was a companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a). As al-Najashi[7] has said, he was a reciter of the Holy Quran in the Mosque of Kufa; he had a book which was narrated by a number of Twelver Shiites such as Thabit b. Shurayh.

Ibn Abi Ya'fur passed away in 131/749 in the plague year;[8] at the time of the Imamate of Ja'far al-Sadiq (a).

Credibility and Status

Al-Najashi considered him as thiqa thiqa[9] (the most trustworthy of the trustworthy); Muhaddith Nuri regarded him as a notable twelver jurist such as Zurara.[10] In addition, he was a man of piety and ijtihad among companions of Imam in Kufa.

According to narrations of Al-Shaykh al-Tusi from Imam al-Sadiq (a), Ibn Abi Ya'fur was the most obedient person to the orders of Imams.[11] In a narration, Imam al-Sadiq (a) said: "No one obeyed all the commands of Allah thoroughly except Abd Allah b. Abi Ya'fur."[12] As Al-Shaykh al-Tusi has stated, Abu Hamza Ma'qil al-'Ijli quoted from Ibn Abi Ya'fur that he has said to Imam al-Sadiq (a): If you order me about a Pomegranate that half of it is Halal and the other half is Haram, I will obey you without hesitation.[13]

After Ibn Abi Ya'fur passed away, Imam al-Sadiq (a) wrote a letter to Mufaddal b. Umar al-Ju'fi and mentioned him as one who obeyed the commands of Allah, Prophet Muhammad (s), and Imams (a).[14]

A Member of the Disciples

In the well-known hadith of the disciples[15] in which Imam al-Kazim (a) mentioned the names of notable companions of Prophet Muhammad (s) and Imams, he considered Ibn Abi Ya'fur as companion of Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Sadiq (a).

Denomination

Ibn Abi Ya'fur was definitely a Shi'a Muslim. However, due to the political situations of the time in Umayyad and Abbasid era, it was hazardous for Shi'a Muslims to declare their beliefs publicly. According to al-Kulayni,[16] Ibn Abi Ya'fur refused to answer clearly Abu Yusuf Qadi's question about following Shi'ism. However, Abu Yusuf admired Ibn Abu Ya'fur for being 'sincerely trustworthy' in this incident. Nevertheless, according to the time of Ibn Abi Ya'fur's demise, it doesn't seem very likely.

Al-Shaykh al-Tusi[17] mentioned a sect called Ya'fur. Al-Mashkur in his glosses on Al-Maqalat wa al-firaq by al-Ash'ari[18] discussed the possibility that this sect is attributed to Ibn Abi Ya'fur. However it is incorrect, they are considered as Ghulat (exaggerators) of Shi'a who are attributed to Muhammad b. Ya'fur.[19]

Al-Ash'ari[20] considered Ibn Abi Ya'fur as one of those Shi'a Muslims who believed that Imam al-Kazim (a) was the succeeding Imam after Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (a) and due to their stability, followers of 'Abd Allah al-Aftah accepted the Imamate of Musa al-Kazim (a) and supported him.

Masters

Although Ibn Abi Ya'fur's father was a hadith narrator,[21] and he was considered as thiqa,[22] he did not narrate any hadith from him. However, he narrated hadith from Imam al-Baqir (a) through his brother 'Abd al-Karim.[23] He narrated hadith from Abu al-Samit, Ishaq b. Ammar and Mu'alla b. Khunays etc.[24]

Students

Numerous hadith narrators have narrated from Ibn Abi Ya'fur including:

Notes

  1. Samʿānī, al-Ansāb, vol. 9, p. 190-192; Barqī, Kitāb al-Rijāl, p. 22.
  2. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 213.
  3. Ibn Ḥajar, Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb, vol. 12, p. 281.
  4. Samʿānī, al-Ansāb, p. 192.
  5. Najāshī, Rijāl, p. 213.
  6. Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, 223, 261.
  7. Najāshī, Rijāl, p. 213.
  8. Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām, vol. 5, p. 199; Ibn Taghrī-Birdī, al-Nujūm, vol. 1, p. 313.
  9. Najāshī, Rijāl, p. 213.
  10. Nūrī, Mustadrak al-wasāʾil, vol. 3, p. 615.
  11. Ṭūsī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 427.
  12. Ṭūsī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 249.
  13. Ṭūsī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 249.
  14. Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 4, p. 248-249.
  15. Mufīd, al-Ikhtiṣāṣ, p. 61-62.
  16. Kulaynī, al-Furūʿ min al-kāfī, vol. 7, p. 404.
  17. Ṭūsī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 266.
  18. Mashkūr, Ḥāshīya bar maqālāt wa al-firaq, p. 227.
  19. Khwārizmī, Mafātīḥ al-ʿulūm, p. 50.
  20. Ashʿarī, Kitāb al-maqālāt wa al-firaq, p. 88.
  21. Muslim, al-Kunā wa al-asmāʾ, p. 199.
  22. Ibn Ḥajar, Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb, vol. 11, p. 123.
  23. Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 6, p. 242.
  24. Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 4, p. 150; vol. 6, p. 223; vol. 9, p. 330.
  25. Ibn Ḥajar, Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb, vol. 11, p. 452.
  26. Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 2, p. 94, 231; vol. 4, p. 136, 150.

References

  • Ashʿarī, Saʿd b. ʿAbd Allāh al-. Kitāb al-maqālāt wa al-firaq. Edited by Muḥammad Jawād Mashkūr. Tehran: 1963.
  • Barqī, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad. Kitāb al-Rijāl. Tehran: 1383 AH/1963.
  • Dhahabī, Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad. Tārīkh al-Islām. Cairo: 1368 AH.
  • Ibn Taghrī-Birdī, Abū al-Maḥāsin Yūsuf. Al-Nujūm. Hyderabad Deccan: 1327 AH/1909.
  • Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī. Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb. Hyderabad Deccan: 1327 AH/1909.
  • Khwārizmī, Muḥammad. Mafātīḥ al-ʿulūm. Edited by Ibrāhīm Ābyārī. Beirut: 1404 AH/1984.
  • Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Furūʿ min al-kāfī. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Beirut: 1401 AH.
  • Muslim b. Ḥajjāj. Al-Kunā wa al-asmāʾ. Edited by Muṭāʿ al-Tarābīshī. Damascus: 1404 AH/1984.
  • Mashkūr, Muḥammad Jawād. Ḥāshīya bar maqālāt wa al-firaq. [n.p.], [n.d].
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Ikhtiṣāṣ. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī and Maḥmūd Zarandī. Qom: Jamā, [n.d].
  • Nūrī, Mīrzā Ḥusayn al-. Mustadrak al-wasāʾil wa musṭanbit al-wasā'il. Tehran: 1318-1321 AH.
  • Najāshī, Aḥmad. Rijāl al-Najāshī. Mumbai: 1317 AH/1899.
  • Samʿānī, ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Muḥammad. al-. Al-Ansāb. Hyderabad Deccan: 1398 AH/1978.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl. Edited by Ḥasan Muṣṭafawī. Mashhad: 1348 AH.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Tahdhīb al-aḥkām. Edited by Sayyid Ḥasan Mūsawī Khursān. Tehran: 1390 Sh.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥaasn al-. Al-Rijāl. Edited by Muḥammad Ṣādiq Baḥr al-ʿUlūm. Najaf: 1381 AH.