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Dawud b. al-Husayn

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Companion of Imam (a)
Dawud b. al-Husayn
Full Name Dawud b. Husayn al-Kufi
Companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a), Imam al-Kazim (a)
Religious Affiliation Shi'a or Waqifi
Place(s) of Residence Kufa
Activities Transmitter of hadith

Dawūd b. al-Ḥuṣayn (Arabic:داود بن الحُصَین) is a Shi'a hadith transmitter of the 2nd/8th century. There is disagreement about his reliability among the rijal scholars. Al-Najashi said he was Thiqa (reliable) and al-Shaykh al-Tusi and Ibn 'Uqda mentioned that he was a Waqifi. He was a friend of Abu l-'Abbas Fadl b. 'Abd al-Malik al-Baqbaq – a renowned companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a)– and has narrated his book.

Lineage

As he was under the Wila' of Banu Asad, he is called al-Asadi,[1] and because he and his family lived in Kufa, he is called al-Kufi.[2] Muwahhid Abtahi[3] said perhaps Husayn b. Mansur al-Asadi al-Kufi which is mentioned as a reliable (Thiqa) narrator in Sunni Rijal sources is his father;[4] although Shi'a Rijal sources did not mention him.

In available versions of Khulasat al-aqwal,[5] his father's named is mistakenly recorded as Husayn (Arabic: حسین).[6]

There is another Dawud b. Husayn which is mentioned in Sunni Rijal sources,[7] who is definitely another person.[8]

Reliability

He is mentioned among the companions of Imam al-Sadiq (a) and Imam al-Kazim (a);[9] however, he has not narrated any Hadith from Imam al-Kazim (a).[10]

Opinions of al-Tusi and al-Najashi

While al-Najashi said that he was Thiqa (reliable),[11] Ibn 'Uqda[12] and al-Shaykh al-Tusi[13] said that he was Waqifi.[14] This led to a disagreement among later Rijal scholars about the reliability of Dawud.

Disagreement among Rijal Scholars

Ibn Dawud al-Hilli has listed him once among the praised narrators based on al-Najashi's saying,[15] and once among the dispraised narrators based on al-Shaykh al-Tusi's saying.[16] Al-'Allama al-Hilli[17] has also mentioned him in the second part of his book which contains the name of narrators that he did not trust. Although Mirdamad[18] claimed that al-'Allama al-Hilli regarded the Hadiths narrated by Dawud as Sahih,[19] by referring to 'Allama's saying it appears that he said the path of a Hadith is Sahih (correct) to Dawud, but not the Hadith itself.[20]

Preferring al-Tusi's Opinion

Some scholars have preferred the opinion of al-Shaykh al-Tusi over the al-Najashi's, and consequently believed that the Hadiths narrated by him are Da'if (weak).[21] On the other hand, some said that there is no contradiction between these two opinions and Dawud b. Husayn is simply a reliable (Thiqa) non-Twelver narrator.[22]

Preferring al-Najashi's Opinion

Nevertheless, some have chosen the opinion of al-Najashi, as it is stronger than al-Tusi's.[23] Moreover, Wahid Bihbahani[24] said the narration of Safwan b. Yahya, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr al-Bazanti and other reliable Muhaddiths such as Ja'far b. Bashir form Dawud b. Husayn supports the opinion of al-Najashi.[25] He doubted that Dawud was Waqifi and said that al-Shaykh al-Tusi has taken his opinion from Ibn 'Uqda, who was a member of Jarudiyya until his death, thus his opinion is invalid.[26]

However, this is not acceptable as it means al-Tusi simply followed Ibn 'Uqda without knowing the truth. In addition, Ibn 'Uqda was a reliable Muhaddith and his opinions are valid.[27] On the other hand, Mirdamad[28] claimed that there is consensus on his reliability and the report that he was Waqifi has not been proven. Dawud b. Husayn had a book, to which al-Najashi[29] mentioned a path and al-Tusi mentioned two paths.[30]

Companionship with Companions of Imam al-Sadiq (a)

Dawud b. Husayn was a friend of Abu l-'Abbas Fadl b. 'Abd al-Malik al-Baqbaq, one of the renowned companions of Imam al-Sadiq (a).[31] Dawud has narrated his book and also a lot of Hadiths from him.[32] About ninety Hadiths are narrated form Dawud in al-Kutub al-Arba'a (the Four Books). In addition to narrating directly from Imam al-Sadiq (a),[33] he has narrated Hadith from famous Muhaddiths such as: 'Umar b. Hanzala, 'Ubayd b. Zurara and Mansur b. Hazim. Great narrators such as: Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr al-Bazanti, Safwan b. Yahya and Ja'far b. Bashir al-Bajali have narrated Hadith from him.[34]

His Hadiths

Most of Hadiths narrated form Dawud are related to different jurisprudential topics, such as: fasting,[35] Hajj,[36] marriage[37] and divorce.[38] Hadiths about the right of a faithful on another faithful,[39] Occultation of Imam al-Mahdi (a)[40] and exegesis of the Holy Qur'an[41] has been narrated from him. It is noteworthy, that he has narrated the famous Hadith from 'Umar b. Hanzala about the disagreement in Hadiths.[42]

Notes

  1. Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 4, p. 466; Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 159.
  2. Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī, p. 202.
  3. Muwaḥḥid Abṭahī, Tahdhīb al-maqāl, vol. 5, p. 490-491.
  4. Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 6, p. 543-545.
  5. Ḥillī, Khulāṣat al-aqwāl, p. 345.
  6. Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī, p. 178.
  7. Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 6, p. 379-382.
  8. Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 4, p. 237.
  9. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 159; Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī, p. 202, 336.
  10. Muwaḥḥid Abṭahī, Tahdhīb al-maqāl, vol. 5, p. 493.
  11. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 159.
  12. Ḥillī, Khulāṣat al-aqwāl, p. 345.
  13. Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl al-Ṭūsī, p. 336.
  14. Ibn Dāwūd al-Ḥillī, Kitāb al-rijāl, p. 245.
  15. Ibn Dāwūd al-Ḥillī, Kitāb al-rijāl, p. 90.
  16. Ibn Dāwūd al-Ḥillī, Kitāb al-rijāl, p. 245.
  17. Ḥillī, Khulāṣat al-aqwāl, p. 345.
  18. Mīr Dāmād, al-Taʿlīqa alā uṣūl al-kāfī, p. 152; Mīr Dāmād, al-Rawāshiḥ al-samāwiya, p. 244.
  19. Ḥillī, Muntahā al-maṭlab fī taḥqīq al-madhhab, vol. 1, p. 337, under the discussion of "Qunut in Friday prayer".
  20. Māzandarānī Ḥāʾirī, Muntahā al-maqāl fī aḥwāl al-rijāl, vol. 3, p. 197; Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 4, p. 236-237.
  21. Ābī, Kashf al-rumūz, vol. 1, p. 476-477; Shahīd al-Thānī, al-Bidāya fī ʿilm al-dirāya, p. 192.
  22. Muqaddas Ardibīlī, Majmaʿ al-fāʾida wa al-burhān, vol. 3, p. 262; Kāzimī, Hidāyat al-muḥaddithīn, p. 58; Majlisī, al-Wajīza fī al-rijāl, p. 76; Kāzimī, Takmilat al-rijāl, vol. 1, p. 491; Zanjāni, Kitāb al-jāmiʿ fī al-rijāl, p. 741.
  23. Karbāsī, Iklīl al-manhaj, p. 242; Bihbahānī, Taʿliqāt ʿalā manhaj al-maqāl, p. 135; Kalbāsī, Samāʾ al-maqāl, vol. 2, p. 445; Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 26, p. 157; Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 7, p. 98.
  24. Bihbahānī, Taʿliqāt ʿalā manhaj al-maqāl, p. 134.
  25. Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 26, p. 160; Muwaḥḥid Abṭahī, Tahdhīb al-maqāl, vol. 5, p. 492; Mūsawī ʿĀmilī, Madārik al-aḥkām, vol. 4, p. 364.
  26. Mīr Dāmād, al-Taʿlīqa alā uṣūl al-kāfī, p. 154.
  27. Baḥrānī, al-Ḥadāʾiq al-nāḍira, vol. 11, p. 155; Kāzimī, Takmilat al-rijāl, vol. 1, p. 491; Mamaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 26, p. 156-157.
  28. Mīr Dāmād, al-Taʿlīqa alā uṣūl al-kāfī, p. 152-153; Mīr Dāmād, al-Rawāshiḥ al-samāwiya, p. 224.
  29. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 160.
  30. Ṭūsī, Fihrist kutub al-Shīʿa, p. 181.
  31. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 159, 308.
  32. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 6, p. 94; vol. 4, p. 175-176; vol. 5, p. 376, 396, 479; vol. 6, p. 99, 476; vol. 7, p. 140, 279.
  33. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 2, p. 654; vol. 6, p. 45, 402; Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 4, p. 328; vol. 5, p. 75, 402.
  34. Ardabīlī, Jāmiʿ al-ruwāt, vol. 1, p. 303; Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 7, p. 99, 399, 402.
  35. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 4, p. 83, 175-176.
  36. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 4, p. 345.
  37. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 5, p. 376, 396, 479.
  38. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 6, p. 99-100.
  39. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 2, p. 654.
  40. Ṣadūq, al-Imāma wa al-tabṣira, p. 119-120.
  41. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 2, p. 94.
  42. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 67-68.

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