Priority: c, Quality: b

Hammad b. Isa al-Juhani

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Companion of Imam (a)
Hammad b. Isa al-Juhani
Full Name Hammad b. 'Isa al-Juhani
Companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a), Imam al-Kazim (a), Imam al-Rida (a), and Imam al-Jawad (a)
Teknonym Abu Muhammad
Epithet Al-Basri
Wellknown Relatives 'Ubayda b. al-Sayfi al-Juhani (grandfather)
Place of Birth Kufa
Place(s) of Residence Kufa, Basra
Death/Martyrdom 209/824-825
Cause of
Death/Martyrdom
Flood in Juhfa
Burial Place Medina
Works Kitab al-Zakat, Kitab al-Salat, Kitab al-Nawadir, and Masa'il al-tilmidh wa tasnifih
People of Consensus

Comapnions of Imam al-Baqir (a)
Zurara b. A'yan
Ma'ruf b. Kharrabudh
Burayd b. Mu'awiya
Abu Basir
al-Fudayl b. Yasar
Muhammad b. Muslim


Companions of Imam al-Sadiq (a)
Jamil b. Darraj
Abd Allah b. Muskan
Abd Allah b. Bukayr
Hammad b. 'Uthman
Hammad b. 'Isa
Aban b. 'Uthman


Companions of Imam al-Kazim (a) and Imam al-Rida (a)
Yunus b. 'Abd al-Rahman
Safwan b. Yahya
Muhammad b. Abi 'Umayr
Abd Allah b. al-Mughira
Hasan b. Mahbub
Ahmad b. Abi Nasr al-Bazanti

Ḥammad b. ʿĪsā al-Juhanī, (Arabic: حمّاد بن عيسی الجهني) (d. 209/824-825) was an Imami hadith scholar and jurist of the 2nd/8th century.

He was a companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a), Imam al-Kazim (a), Imam al-Rida (a), and Imam al-Jawad (a). More than 1,500 hadiths are quoted from Hammad in Shi'a hadith sources. Shi'a scholars of rijal have praised him as a trustworthy and truthful hadith transmitters. Most of his hadiths are related to fiqh, and some of them are on imamate and ethics.

Biography

According to some sources, Hammad was a mawla,[1] and according to some others, he was originally a Kufan[2] Arab,[3] who later resided in Basra;[4] hence, his epithet al-Basri.[5]

Hammad's grandfather, 'Ubayda b. al-Sayfi al-Juhani, was a Companion of the Prophet (s), and Hammad quoted hadith from him through his father.[6]

Hammad passed away in 209/824-825[7] when he was more than ninety years old.[8]

According to a hadith, Imam al-Kazim (a) prayed that Hammad could go to hajj fifty times, and the Imam's prayer was fulfilled. When Hammad was on his 51st hajj, he was drowned by a flood in Juhfa,[9] and his body was buried near Medina.[10]

Hammad lived during the imamate of Imam al-Sadiq (a), Imam al-Kazim (a), Imam al-Rida (a), and probably Imam al-Jawad (a),[11] though we do not have any hadith quoted by him from Imam al-Rida (a) or Imam al-Jawad (a).

As a Hadith Transmitter

According to al-'Allama al-Hilli, Hammad was very careful and cautious in the transmission of hadiths.[12] Because of this, although he had heard seventy hadiths from Imam al-Sadiq (a), he quoted only twenty hadiths from the Imam (a).[13]

The hadiths quoted by Hammad can be found in both Shia and Sunni hadith collections.[14] Shia scholars of rijal have praised him as a trustworthy and honest hadith transmitter.[15] Al-Kashshi[16] counts him among the People of Consensus, whose trustworthiness is accepted by all Shias.

Among Sunni scholars of rijal, Yahya b. Mu'in regards Hammad as "the righteous shaykh,"[17] but the others regard him as unreliable.[18] However, Sunni hadith scholars have quoted Hammad's hadiths from Imam al-Sadiq (a), Hanzala b. Abi Sufyan, Sufyan al-Thawri, and Ibn Jurayh.[19]

The name Hammad appears in the chains of transmission of more than 1,800 hadiths.[20] This could be Hammad b. 'Isa or Hammad b. 'Uthman,[21] and to determine which one is meant, one needs to check contextual indications. The name Hammad b. 'Isa appears in the chains of transmission of more than 1,036 hadiths, which shows the importance of Hammad b. 'Isa as a hadith transmitter.[22]

Content of Hadiths

Studying the hadiths quoted by Hammad shows that he was more concerned with legal matters, though he quoted some hadiths on imamate and ethics as well.[23]

Teachers and Students

He quoted hadiths from more than fifty hadith transmitters and mostly from Hariz b. 'Abd Allah al-Sajistani.[24]

More than forty hadith transmitters, and more than all Ibrahim b. Hashim, quoted hadiths from Hammad directly.[25]

Works

Hammad produced several works including:

  • Kitab al-Zakat
  • Kitab al-Salat
  • Kitab al-Nawadir[26]
  • Masa'il al-tilmidh wa tasnifih, containing moral advice, theological materials, and stories on human beings and animals.[27]

Notes

  1. Barqī, al-Rijāl, p. 21, 48; Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 142.
  2. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, 317; Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 187.
  3. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 142.
  4. Barqī, al-Rijāl, p. 21.
  5. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, 316.
  6. Ibn Makūlā, al-Ikmāl fī rafʿ al-irtīyāb, vol. 6, p. 47-48; Ibn al-Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 3, p. 356.
  7. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 143.
  8. Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 2, p. 662; Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 6, p. 228.
  9. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 142; Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 187.
  10. Irbilī, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 3, p. 518.
  11. Irbilī, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2, p. 418-419; vol. 3, 157.
  12. Ḥillī, Khulāṣat al-aqwāl, p. 124.
  13. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 316.
  14. Ṭūsī, Fihrist kutub al-Shīʿa, p. 156; Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, p. 334.
  15. Ṭūsī, al-Ghayba, p. 71.
  16. Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 375.
  17. Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 20, p. 49; Dhahabī, Tārīkh al-Islām wa wafayāt al-mashāhīr wa l-aʿlām, vol. 5, p. 63.
  18. Abū Dawūd, Suʾālāt Abī ʿUbayd al-Ājurī, vol. 1, p. 360; Ibn Abī l-Ḥātam, al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl, vol. 3, p. 145; Ibn Ḥabbān, al-Majrūḥīn, vol. 1, p. 253-254.
  19. Ibn Māja, Sunan Ibn Māja, vol. 2, p. 1380; Tirmidhī, Sunan al-tirmidhī, vol. 5, p. 131-132; Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-awsaṭ, vol. 4, p. 235; Abū Nuʿaym al-Iṣfahānī, Juzʾun fihī ṭuruq al-hadīth "Inna lillāh tisʿat wa tisʿīna asmaʾ", p. 152-155.
  20. Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 6, p. 189.
  21. Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 3, p. 663.
  22. Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 6, p. 216.
  23. Ardabīlī, Jāmiʿ al-ruwāt, vol. 1, p. 273-276.
  24. Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 6, p. 189, 231, 426, 437.
  25. Khoeī, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 6, p. 231-232.
  26. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 142-143; Ṭūsī, Fihrist kutub al-Shīʿa wa uṣūlihim wa asmāʾ al-muṣannifīn wa aṣḥāb al-uṣūl, p. 156.
  27. Ibn Ghaḍāʾirī, Rijāl Ibn Ghaḍāʾirī, p. 123; Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 143.

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