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'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani

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Descendant of Imam
'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani
Shrine of 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani in Tehran.jpg
Shrine of Abd al-Azim al-Hasani in South of Tehran, Iran
Epithet Sayyid al-Karim, Shah Abd al-Azim
Father Abd Allah
Mother Fatima
Birth Rabi' II 4 173/September 4 789
Place of Birth Medina
Spouse(s) Khadija bt. Qasim b. Hasan Amir
Children Muhammad and Umm Salamah
Demise Shawwal 252/Nowember 866
Place of Burial Ray
Age 79

Al-Sayyid ʿAbd al-ʿAẓīm al-Ḥasanī (السيد عبدالعظيم الحسني) comenly khown as Sayyid al-Karīm (سید الکریم) and Shah ʿAbd al-ʿAzīm (شاه عبدالعظیم) is among the famous scholars of the progeny of Imam al-Hasan (a) and a transmitter of hadith. Al-Shaykh al-Saduq has compiled the hadith transmitted by him in a collection called Jami' akhbar Abd al-Azim. His teknonym are "Abu l-Qasim" and "Abu l-Fath".

Abd al-Azim al-Hasani had the opportunity to meet Imam al-Rida (a), Imam al-Jawad (a) and Imam al-Hadi (a) before passing away. His mausoleum is in the city of Ray, Tehran, in Iran. It is mentioned in some hadith that the reward for visiting his grave is equal to the reward for visiting Imam al-Husayn's tomb.

Birth and Lineage

"Abd al-Azim b. Abd Allah b. Ali b. al-Hasan b. Zayd b. al-Hasan b. Ali b. Abi Talib" Known as "Abd al-Azim al-Hasani" was born on Rabi' II 4, 173/November 2, 789 during the rule of Harun al-Rashid.[1] Although there are different opinions regarding his place of birth, he was most likely born in Medina.[2] His father was "Abd Allah b. Ali al-Qafa" and his mother was "Hifa' bt. Isma'il b. Ibrahim".[3] Al-Najashi says, "After Abd al-Azim al-Hasani passed away, a piece of writing was found in his clothes which read, 'I am Abu l-Qasim son of Ali son of Hasan son of Zayd son of Hasan son of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a).'"[4] " Muhaqqiq Mirdamad has written, "He ('Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani) has clear lineage in the progeny of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a)."[5]

Wife and Children

His wife, Khadija, was the daughter of his uncle, Qasim b. Hasan Amir, known as Abu Muhammad. His children are named Muhammad and Umm Salamah.[6] Shaykh 'Abbas Qumi wrote regarding 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani's son, "Muhammad was a noble man known for his piety and worship."[7]

Meeting the Imams (a)

Aqa Buzurg Tihrani says, "Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani had the opportunity to meet Imam al-Rida (a), Imam al-Jawad (a) and presented his beliefs to Imam al-Hadi (a) and passed away at his time."[8]

'Atarudi says that according to some reports, he had the opportunity to meet Imam al-Kazim (a), Imam al-Rida (a), Imam al-Jawad (a) and Imam al-Hadi (a).[9]

Ayatollah Khoei rejects that Abd al-Azim al-Hasani had the chance to meet Imam al-Rida (a).[10]

In his book of Rijal, al-Shaykh al-Tusi mentions him to be among the companions of Imam al-Hasan al-Askari (a).[11]

Living in the Era of Oppression

Darih of 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani

Abd al-Azim al-Hasani lived at the time of the Abbasids's oppression of the Shi'a - and like his fathers, was pursued for a long time. Although he practiced Taqiyya during his stay in Medina, Baghdad and Samarra, he was especially disliked by Mutawakkil and Mu'tazz.[12]

Virtues and Position

Al-Allama al-Hilli describes Abd al-Azim al-Hasani as a very pious scholar.[13]

Muhaddith Nuri has quoted the following from the treatise of Sahib b. 'Ubbad regarding 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani:

He was a pious man known for his trust-keeping, truthfulness and knowledge in religion; a believer in the Unity of God and Justice of God, and a transmitter of many hadith."[14]

In the Words of the Imams (a)

Imam al-Hadi (a) was once accompanied in a journey by Abd al-Azim al-Hasani and addressed him saying,

O Abu al-Qasim! You surely are our wali… you have received the religion from us which God loves… May God support you in this world and in the hereafter."[15]

Their conversation is known as "Hadith Ard Din" [The narration of representing the religion].

Scholarly Position

Abu Turab Ruyani says, "I heard from Abu Hammad Razi saying that, 'I went to Imam al-Hadi (a) and asked him about the permissibility and prohibition of some issues. When I was about to leave, he (a) said, 'If you have any question about religious issues, you may ask them from 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani and say my greetings to him."[16]

Transmitted Hadiths

There are more than 100 hadith narrated by Abd al-Azim al-Hasani found in various hadith references. Sahib b. Ubbad says, "He [Abd al-Azim] has transmitted many hadith and has usually narrated from Imam al-Jawad (a) and Imam al-Hadi (a)."[17]

Al-Shaykh al-Saduq has compiled a collection of hadith transmitted by Abd al-Azim Hasani called Jami' akhbar Abd al-Azim.[18] In this collection, there are two hadiths transmitted directly from Imam al-Rida (a), 26 from Imam al-Jawad (a) and nine from Imam al-Hadi (a). There are also 65 hadiths that have been transmitted indirectly from various Imams (a).

Abd al-Azim Hasani has compiled a work entitled, Khutab Amir al-Mu'minin (a) (Sermons of Amir al-Mu'minin (a)).[19] He has also produced the book, Yawm wa laylah (Day and Night),[20] which contains practices and supplications for the day and the night narrated by the Imams (a).[21] Other book attributed to him is entitled "Riwayat 'Abd al-'Azim Hasani."

Traveling to Rey

An air photo of the shrine of 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani, taken by Walter Mittelholzer, a Swiss pilot and photographer in 1925.

There are conflicting reports as to how Abd al-Azim al-Hasani ended up in Rey. According to some, he went to Rey to visit Hamza b. Musa b. Ja'far (a) on his way to visit The Shrine of Imam al-Rida (a) in Mashhad. There are other reports saying that he was ordered by Imam al-Hadi (a) to immigrate from Samarra to Rey due to the persecution and danger of being killed by the Abbasid Caliph Mu'tazz.[22]

According to Ahmad b. Ali al-Najashi,

"Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid al-Barqi narrated the story as, Abd al-Azim al-Hasani was escaping from the Sultan and came to Rey and stayed in the basement of a Shi'a in the neighborhood of Sikkat al-Mawali. He used to worship in that basement. He fasted during the day and worshiped at night. He stealthily came out at night and went to visit a grave he said was of one of the children of Musa b. Ja'far (a). He was always in that basement and the news of his coming reached every Shi'a until they all knew him.'"[23]

Demise

It is reported that Abd al-Azim al-Hasani passed away on Shawwal 15, 252/November 2, 866, during the time of Imam al-Hadi (a).[24] There are conflicting reports about the cause of his death. Fakhr al-Din al-Turayhi writes, "One of the children of Abu Talib was buried alive in Rey and he was 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani."[25] However, Wa'iz Kujuri says, "I researched about 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani in the books of Rijal and Ansab and I did not find any reliable report about his martyrdom."[26] And finally, Najashi reports that "'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani became ill and passed away."[27]

Reward for Visiting His Grave

Al-Shaykh al-Saduq has narrated that a man from Rey came to Imam Ali al-Naqi (a) and said, "I went to visit Imam al-Husayn's (a) holy shrine." Imam (a) told him, "If one visits 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani's grave near you, it would be as if he visits Imam al-Husayn (a) in Karbala."[28]

Notes

  1. Āqā Buzurg al-Tihrānī, al-Dharīʿa, vol. 7, p. 169.
  2. Bar āstān-i karāmat, p. 5.
  3. Ibn ʿInaba, ʿUmdat al-ṭālib, p. 94.
  4. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 248.
  5. Mīrdāmād, al-Rawāshih al-samāwīyya, p. 86.
  6. Ibn ʿInaba, ʿUmdat al-ṭālib, p. 94.
  7. Qummī, Muntahā l-āmāl, vol. 1, p. 585.
  8. Āqā Buzurg al-Tihrānī, al-Dharīʿa, vol. 7, p. 190.
  9. ʿAṭārudī, ʿAbd al-ʿAẓīm al-Ḥasanī, p. 37.
  10. Khoei, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 11, p. 53.
  11. Ṭūsī, Rijāl al-Ṭūsī, p. 401.
  12. Bar āstān-i kirāmat, p. 7.
  13. Ḥillī, Khulāṣat al-aqwāl, p. 226.
  14. Nūrī, Khātimat mustadrak al-wasāʾil, vol. 4, p. 404.
  15. Ṣadūq, al-Amālī, p. 419-420; Fattāl al-Niyshābīrī, Rawḍat al-wāʾiẓīn, p. 31-32.
  16. Nūrī, Mustadrak al-wasāʾil, vol. 17, p. 321.
  17. ʿAṭārudī, Musnad al-Imām al-Jawād, p. 302.
  18. Ṣadūq, al-Hidāya, p. 174.
  19. Najāshī, Rijāl, p. 247.
  20. Āqā Buzurg al-Tihrānī, al-Dharīʿa, vol. 7, p. 190.
  21. Wāʿīẓ Kujūrī, Junnat al-naʿīm, vol. 5, p. 182.
  22. Wāʿīẓ Kujūrī, Junnat al-naʿīm, vol. 4, p. 131.
  23. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 248.
  24. Āqā Buzurg al-Tihrānī, al-Dharīʿa, vol. 7, p. 290.
  25. Ṭurayḥī, al-Muntakhab, p. 8.
  26. Wāʿīẓ Kujūrī, Junnat al-naʿīm, vol. 5, p. 360.
  27. Najāshī, Rijāl al-Najāshī, p. 248.
  28. Ṣadūq, Thawāb al-aʿmāl, p. 99.

References

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Further Reading

External Links