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Banu Nadir

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Banu Nadir
Era Before Islam and early 1st/7th century
Lineage Harun b. 'Imran
Naming According to al-Ya'qubi, they resided in the mountain of Nadir.
Geography
Origin Medina
Residence Medina
Well-known Figures
Figures Huyayy b. Akhtab, Kenana b. al-Rabi'
Literates Sallam b. Abu al-Huqayq
Miscellanous
Features The Prophet (s) launched a battle against them known as the Battle of Banu Nadir.

Banū Naḍīr (Arabic: بنو نضیر) is a Jewish tribe that resided in Medina until the early years of Hijra. They resided in Medina before the emergence of Islam.

After the Prophet Muhammad (s)'s immigration to Medina, like other Jewish tribes, Banu Nadir made a compromise treaty with Muslims, promising to help them defend Medina in the case of any attacks, refusing to provide financial and life supports for the polytheists of Quraysh as well as commercial relations with them. But since Banu Nadir breached the treaty, the Prophet (s) launched a battle against them known as the Battle of Banu Nadir.

Origin

The Banu Nadir tribe resided in Yathrib before the emergence of Islam. There are different accounts of their origin. According to al-Ya'qubi, they were a clan of the Judham tribe who converted to Judaism and resided in the mountain of Nadir; and this is why they are called Banu Nadir.[1]

According to another account, they were from the progeny of Harun b. 'Imran (Aaron, the brother of the Prophet Moses (a)), who had immigrated to, and resided in, Yathrib after the demise of the Prophet Moses (a) and before the Arabian tribes of Aws and Khazraj immigrated there because of the 'Arim floods.[2] According to such accounts, in the wake of the Roman war with the Jews (in seventy A.D.), just like many other Jewish tribes, Banu Nadir escaped to Hijaz and resided in Buttahan, an area of Medina.[3] According to Ibn Sa'd, their residence was in the area of al-Ghars.[4]

Before Islam

Banu Nadir and other Medina-based Jews were very rich. In order to defeat or undermine the Jews, the Arabian tribes of Aws and Khazraj asked Ghassanids for help. Ghassanids went to Hijaz with an army, killing many of the Jews. Since then, Aws and Khazraj were dominant over the Jews.[5] Later in the quarrels between Aws and Khazraj, Banu Nadir took sides with Aws. Concurrent with the emergence of Islam and before the occurrence of the Battle of Uhud, Banu Nadir had relationships with Abu Sufyan.[6]

After Islam

After the Prophet (s)'s immigration to Medina, like other Jewish tribes, Banu Nadir made a compromise treaty with Muslims, promising to help them defend Medina in the case of any attacks, refusing to provide financial and life supports for the polytheists of Quraysh as well as commercial relations with them.[7] But since Banu Nadir breached the treaty, the battle of Banu Nadir occurred in Rabi' I of four/June, 625.[8]

See Also

Notes

  1. Yaʿqūbī, Tārīkh al-yaʿqūbī, vol. 2, p. 43.
  2. Abū l-Faraj Iṣfahānī, al-ʾAghānī, vol. 22, p. 343-344.
  3. Abū l-Faraj Iṣfahānī, al-ʾAghānī, vol. 22, p. 344; Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān, vol. 5, p. 290.
  4. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 2, p. 57.
  5. Abū l-Faraj Iṣfahānī, al-ʾAghānī, vol. 22, p. 344-345.
  6. Dāʾirat al-maʿārif-i Islām, 2nd edition, under words "Nadir, Banu".
  7. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 2, p. 148-150.
  8. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 2, p. 57.

References

  • Ḥalabī, Nūr al-Dīn. Al-Sīra al-ḥalabiyya. 2nd edition. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1427 AH.
  • Ḥamawī, Yāqūt b. ʿAbd Allāh al-. Muʿjam al-buldān. 2nd edition. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, 1995.
  • Ibn al-Athīr al-Jazarī, ʿAlī b. Abī l-Karam. Al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh. Beirut: 1405 AH.
  • Ibn Saʿd, Muḥammad. Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā. Edited by Iḥsān ʿAbbās. 1st edition. Beirut: Dār Ṣādir, 1968.
  • Ibn Hishām, ʿAbd al-Malik. Al-Sīra al-nabawīyya. Edited by Muṣṭafā al-Saqā, Ibrāhīm Ābyārī and ʿAbd al-Ḥafīz Shalbī. Cairo: 1355 AH/1936.
  • Iṣfahānī, Abū l-Faraj al-. Al-ʾAghānī. 1st edition. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1415 AH.
  • Yaʿqūbī, Aḥmad b. Abī Yaʿqūb al-. Tārīkh al-yaʿqūbī. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, [n.d].