Baba Rukn al-Din

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تصویری از مقبره بابا رکن الدین.jpg
The tomb of Baba Rukn al-Din Shirazi, Takht-i Fulad, Isfahan, Iran
Personal Information
Full Name Mas'ud b. 'Abd 'Allah Baydawi
Well-Known As Baba Rukn al-Din Shirazi
Death 769/1368
Burial Place Takht-i Fulad, Isfahan
Scholarly Information
Professors 'Abd al-Razzaq Kashani, Dawud Qiysari
Works Nusus al-khusus fi tarjimat al-fusus, Kashf al-durr fi nazm al-durr, ...

Mas'ūd b. ʿAbd Allah Bayḍawi* (Arabic: مسعود بن عبدالله بیضاوی) (d. 769/1368), famous as: Bābā Rūkn al-Dīn Shīrazī (Persian: بابا رکن الدین شیرازی) was a scholar and mystic in eighth/fourteenth century. His exact birth date is not known. He is originally from Beyza in the Fars province, Iran. The author of The history of Isfahan and Rey counted him as a member of Jabiri Ansari family.

There is a disagreement over his denomination. some presented him as a Shi'a and others regarded him as a Sunni. However, the inscriptions on his tombstone indicate that he was a Shi'a.

In terms of mystical inclination, he's been considered as a follower of Ibn al-'Arabi. Nusus al-khusus fi tarjimat al-fusus, which is a commentary on Ibn al-'Arabi's Fusus al-hikam, is his magnum opus.

Baba Rukn al-Din died in 769/1368 in Isfahan and was buried in Takht-i Fulad.

Biography

Baba Rukn al-Din is originally from Beyza in the province of Fars, Iran. His exact birthrate is not known and the author of the history of Isfahan and Rey counted him as a member of Jaberi Ansari family.

From childhood, Baba Rukn al-Din had mystical and Sufi tendencies and after knowing about the affairs and traditions of mystics, he started his own spiritual journey as a wayfarer. He says: "from childhood, I could realize a meaning of the meanings and a level of the levels of tawhid from within."[1]

He first learned the theoretical mysticism and practical wayfaring from 'Abd al-Razzaq Kashani (d.736/1336). Then he educated under Dawud Qiysari (d.751/1350) and studied Fusus al-hikam. He also benefited from Nu'man Khwarazmi in comprehending the complicated parts of Fusus.[2] In Shiraz, he also attended the sessions of Amin Bilyani whom later Baba Rukn al-Din would admire and use the title al-Shaykh al-Mashayikh (the master of masters) for.[3]

Denomination

There is a disagreement over his sect. Some presented him as a Shi'a and others regarded him as a Sunni. However, the inscriptions on his tombstone indicate that he was a Shi'a. In terms of mystical inclination, specifically the belief in wahdat al-wujud, he's been considered as a follower of Ibn al-'Arabi.

Works

His scholarly works include:

  • Nusus al-khusus fi tarjimat al-fusus which is a commentary on Ibn al-'Arabi's Fusus al-hikam and apparently his magnum opus. This book has been published in 1359/1980 in Tehran.
  • Kashf al-durr fi nazm al-durr; or the commentary on al-Ta'iya al-kubra by Ibn Farid. There is a manuscript of this book in the library of the Islamic Consultative Assembly of Iran.
  • Kunuz al-rumuz fi 'ilm al-huruf
  • Qalandariyya
  • The introduction to Nusus al-khusus; which is an independent work in its own right due to its length.

Demise

Baba Rukn al-Din died in Isfahan and was buried in Takht-i Fulad. According to the inscription at the entry to his tomb, he passed away in 769/1368.

Tomb

His tomb In Isfahan has always been a location for meditation and recites by Sufis and Dervishs. This tomb was built during Ilkhanid dynasty. It is located on the south bank of the Zayanderud and dates earlier than its surrounding graves. As a result of his fame, in the past and even after Safavid period, the whole graveyard was known as the cemetery of Baba Rukn al-Din and even the Bridge of Khwaju which is located in its rout, was known as the bridge of Baba Rukn al-Din.

Notes

  1. Baba Rukn al-Din al-Shirazi, Nusus al-khusus fi tarjimat al-fusus, p. 4
  2. Baba Rukn al-Din al-Shirazi, Nusus al-khusus fi tarjimat al-fusus, pp. 5, 233, 249
  3. Baba Rukn al-Din al-Shirazi, Nusus al-khusus fi tarjimat al-fusus, pp. 222-223

References