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Abd Allah al-Fadil al-Tuni

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This article is about 'Abd Allah al-Fadil al-Tuni, an Akhbari faqih of 11th/17th century. For a faqih and teacher of philosophy and mysticism in 14th/20th century, see Muhammad Husayn al-Tuni.
Abd Allah al-Fadil al-Tuni
مقبره فاضل تونی.jpg
The tomb of al-Fadil al-Tuni in Kermanshah
Personal Information
Full Name 'Abd Allah b. Muhammad al-Tuni
Epithet Al-Fadil al-Tuni
Religious Affiliation Twelver Shia
Place of Birth Boshruyeh in Khorasan
Residence Mashhad, Qazvin, Isfahan
Studied in Isfahan
Death Rabi' I 16, 1071/November 19, 1660
Burial Place Kermanshah 34°19′05″N 47°08′07″E / 34.317973°N 47.135416°E / 34.317973; 47.135416
Scholarly Information
Works Al-Wafiya, Risala mukhtasara

ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad al-Tūnī (Arabic: عبداللّه بن محمد التوني) (d. 1071/1660), known as al-Fāḍil al-Tūnī (Arabic: الفاضل التوني), was an Imami faqih and Akhbari in the 11th/17th century. Not much is known about his personal life. He studied in Isfahan. He also lived in Mashhad and Qazvin, and died in Kermanshah. One of his important works is al-Wafiya.


Nothing is known about the year of his birth, his educations, and his teachers. He was born in Boshruyeh, 14 parasangs (a historical unit of distance) from Tun (today's Ferdows). Thus, he was also known as Mulla 'Abd Allah Bushruyi Khurasani.

Mulla 'Abd Allah al-Tuni lived in Isfahan in the school of Mawla 'Abd Allah al-Shushtari for a while, and then moved to Mashhad and lived there for a while. He then departed to visit al-'Atabat al-'Aliyat (holy shrines) in Iraq, but on his way in Qazvin, his friend, Mawla Khalil al-Qazwini, asked him to stay there. Thus, he had a sojourn there for a while.

Al-Tuni died on Rabi' I 16, 1071/November 19, 1660 in Kermanshah and was buried there.

Scholarly Life

Tendency to Akhbarism

Main article: Akhbarism

His contemporary scholar, al-Hurr al-'Amili, referred to him as a knowledgeable scholar, and a pious and ascetic faqih (jurist).

Al-Shaykh al-Ansari mentioned al-Tuni as an Akhbari scholar, but al-Tuni's remarks in his al-Wafiya shows that he was a moderate Akhbari. He acknowledged usul al-fiqh (principles of jurisprudence), unlike radical Akhbaris who completely set it aside. Even some scholars considered him as an usuli scholar. In fact, with his book, al-Wafiya, al-Tuni led Akhbarism to a moderate approach. Together with Mirza Muhammad b. Hasan Shirwani and al-Muhaqqiq al-Khwansari, he started a new movement in Iran that led to the strength of the usuli approach in Iran, against the Akhbari approach in Iraq which was centered in Karbala.

Scholarly Work

Two of al-Tuni's books are available to us which have been published.

See also