Al-Lum'a al-Dimashqiyya (book)
|Author||Muhammad b. Makki al-Jizzini al-'Amili|
|Original title||اَللُّمعَةُ الدِّمَشقیة في ِفقه الإمامیة|
|Publisher||Dar al-turath - Al-Dar al-'islamiyya, Beirut|
Al-Lumʿa al-Dimashqīyya fī fiqh al-ʾimāmīyya (Arabic: اَللُّمعَةُ الدِّمَشقیة في ِفقه الإمامیة), also known as al-Lum'a (Arabic: اللمعة) is a complete course on Shi'a jurisprudence, authored by Muhammad b. Makki al-Jizzini al-'Amili known as al-Shahid al-Awwal. The book is one of his most famous books which is a complete course of Imami jurisprudence from Tahara (cleanness) to Diyat (blood money). This book and its commentary are taught in Shi'a seminaries
- Main article: Muhammad b. Makki al-Jizzini al-'Amili
Muhammad b. Makki al-Jizzini al-'Amili (b.734/1333 - d.786/1384) known as al-Shahid al-Awwal or al-Shaykh al-Shahid was a Shi'a jurist of 8th/14th century. He was also an expert in Sunni schools of jurisprudence. He traveled to several Islamic countries and received some permissions to narrate hadith as well. He was martyred by anti-Shi'a groups in 786/1384.
Reputation of the Book
Al-Lum'at al-Dimashqiyya contains a course of the most important jurisprudential discussions which has been written in the style of "fiqh al-fatawa" (jurisprudential work that presents the final conclusions rather than inferential discussions). However, sometimes one may notice minute inferential discussions. The book received scholarly attention for its brevity, coherence, order and arrangement. From the time that the book was written, jurists have paid special attention to it and made use of this book as a source in their works. Nowadays, the book is taught in Shi'a seminaries.
Compilation of the Book
Shaykh Hurr al-'Amili reported,"Shahid was imprisoned for one year in Damascus castle. He wrote this book in prison in seven days while he had no access to jurisprudential sources and books except Mukhtasr al-Nafi' authored by Muhaqqiq Awwal. At the beginning of each chapter (which is titled as Kitab (book)) of the book, Shahid mentioned the rulings (ahkam) related to the chapter first, and then added other discussions, recommended (mustahab) and disliked (makruh) actions related to the topic of the chapter.
Based on his own assertion at the final section of the book, his major concern was to present the mainstream point of view of Shi'a jurists.
Reason of Compilation
According to the preface of the book, Shahid wrote the book at the request of a group whom he titled as "ba'd al-dayyanin" (some of religious); however, at the end of the book he referred to them as "ba'd al-tullab"(some students).
In his commentary on al-Lum'a, al-Shahid al-Thani says, "the book was written at the request of Shams al-Din Muhammad Awi one of the companions and close people to Sultan Ali b. Mu'ayyid -a Sultan of Sarbadarids in Khurusan, Iran- and meant to be a reference text for jurisprudential and governmental rulings.
Chapters of the Book
The contents of the book is divided into four sections: 'Ibadat (acts of worship), transactions (Mu'amalat), Iqa'at (unilateral contracts) and Ahkam (rulings). The title of the chapters (which are titled as Kitab (book)) of these sections are as follows:
- Kitab al-Tahara (the Book of Ritual Purity)
- Kitab al-Salat (the Book of Prayer)
- Kitab al-Zakat (the Book of Charity)
- Kitab al-Khums (the Book of One-fifth)
- Kitab al-Sawm (the Book of Fasting)
- Kitab al-I'tikaf (the Book of Retreat in the Mosque)
- Kitab al-Hajj (the Book of Pilgrimage)
- Kitab al-Jihad (the Book of Fighting)
- Kitab al-Kaffarat (the Book of Atonements)
- Kitab al-Nadhr wa l-Tawabi' (the Book of Vowing and the Likes)
- Kitab al-Qada' (the Book of Judgment)
- Kitab al-Shahadat (the Book of Testimony)
- Kitab al-Waqf (the Book of Endowment)
- Kitab al-'Atiyya (the Book of Gift)
- Kitab al-Matajir (the Book of Buying and Selling)
- Kitab al-Dayn (the Book of Loan)
- Kitab al-Rahn (the Book of Pawning)
- Kitab al-Hajr (the Book of Wardship)
- Kitab al-Daman (the Book of Liability)
- Kitab al-Hawala (the Book of Negotiable Instrument)
- Kitab al-Kifala (the Book of Suretyship)
- Kitab al-Sulh (the Book of Compromising)
- Kitab al-Shirka (the Book of Partnership)
- Kitab al-Mudaraba (the Book of Speculation)
- Kitab al-Wadi'a (the Book of Trusteeship)
- Kitab al-'Ariya (the Book of Lending)
- Kitab al-Muzara'a (the Book of Sharecropping- usually crops)
- Kitab al-Musaqat (the Book of Sharecropping- usually gardens)
- Kitab al-Ijara (the Book of Lease)
- Kitab al-Wikala (the Book of Agency)
- Kitab al-Shuf'a (the Book of Pre-emption)
- Kitab al-Sabq wa l-Rimaya (the Book of Race and Archery)
- Kitab al-Ju'ala (the Book of Stipulating Reward for Whoever Fulfilling the Specific Requirement)
- Kitab al-Wasaya (the Book of Wills)
- Kitab al-Nikah (the Book of Marriage)
- Kitab al-Talaq (the Book of Divorce)
- Kitab al-Khul' wa l-Mubarat (the Book of the Divorce by Wife or by Mutual Consent)
- Kitab al-Zihar (the Book of Avoiding the Wife by Comparing her Back to the Back of His Mother)
- Kitab al-Ila' (the Book of Oath for Abstention from Your Wife)
- Kitab al-Li'an (the Book of Mutual Cursing (kind of divorce in which the husband swears that his wife has done adultery and she swears of chastity, or a swear which is made by husband for denying paternity of a child born by the wife))
- Kitab al-'Itq (the Book of Manumission)
- Kitab al-Tadbir wa l-Mukataba wa l-Istilad (three especial way of manumission)
- Kitab al-Iqrar (the Book of Confession)
- Kitab al-Ghasb (the Book of Usurpation)
- Kitab al-Luqata (the Book of Found (people and objects found))
- Kitab Ihya' al-Mawat (the Book of Restoration of Wastelands (putting an uncultivated, abandoned land to use))
- Kitab al-Sayd wa l-Dhubaha (the Book of Hunted and Slaughtered Animals)
- Kitab al-At'ima wa l-Ashriba (the Book of Foods and Drinks)
- Kitab al-Mirath (the Book of Inheritance)
- Kitab al-Hudud (the Book of Limits (specific punishments for specific sins)
- Kitab al-Qisas (the Book of Retaliation)
- Kitab al-Diyat (the Book of Blood Money and Compensation of Injuries)
From Kitab al-Tahara to Kitab al-Jihad is the section of 'Ibadat. From Kitab al-Shirka to Kitab al-Nikah is the section of Mu'amalat. Kitab al-Hudud, al-Qisas, al-Diyat, al-Qada' and Shahadat are listed as Ahkam section, and the remaining books are Iqa'at.
Commentaries on the Book
Commentaries on the book could be divided into two groups: with specific names, without specific names which are known as commentaries or glosses on the book.
Commentaries with Specific Names
- Al-Rawda al-bahiyya fi sharh al-Lum'at al-dimashqiyya ; written by Shahid Thani (d. 966/1559). This commentary is the most famous commentary of al-Lum'a.
- Tawdih al-mushkilat ; written by Muhammad Shafi' b. Muhammad Husayn (d. mid 13th/19th century)
- Al-Tuhfat al-gharawiyya (commentary on Kitab al-Mirath); written by Shaykh Khidr b. Salal Al Khuddam 'Afkawi (d. 1255/1839)
- Kashf al-niqab ; written by Masih b. Muhammad Sa'id Tihrani.
- Al-Madhahib al-qudsiyya , al-Anwar al-gharawiyya , al-Shari'at al-nabawiyya ; written by Shaykh Muhammad Jawad b. Taqi known as Mulla Katib Ahmadi (alive in 1267/1851). There are three reports about the title of his book.
- Al-Tuhfat al-radawiyya ; written by Sayyid Muhammad b. Ma'sum Radawi Mashhadi (d. 1255/1839)
- Al-Khiyarat ; expanded inferential commentary on some rulings of bay' (sale) written by Shaykh Ali b. Ja'far Kashif al-Ghita' (d. 1353/1934)
- Al-Durrat al-ghurriyya ; written by Mulla 'Abd al-Karim b. Muhammad Baqir Salmasi (d. 1280/1863)
- Al-'Uddat al-Najafiyya ; written by Shaykh Muhammad Rida Najaf -the father of Shaykh Muhammad Taha.
- Al-Ghurrat al-gharawiyya ; written by Mulla Ali.
- Al-Minhat al-saniyya ; written by Sayyid Muhammad b. Hashim Hindi (d. 1323/1905)
- Al-Naj'a fi sharh al-Lum'a ; written by Muhammad Taqi Shushtari (d. 1416/1995)
Commentaries without Specific Names
- Glosses on al-Lum'a ; written by "Some Companions" which was written in 932/1526.
- Commentary on the preface of al-Lum'at al-Damishqiyya ; written by Shaykh Ahmad b. Salih Al Ta'ani Bahrani (d. 1315/1897)
- Commentary on al-Lum'a ; written by Sayyid Hasan b. Muhammad Baqir, Known as Hajj Aqa Amir (d. 1380/1960)
- Commentary on al-Lum'a ; written by Sayyid Muhammad Rida b. Sayyid Muhammad Mahdi Bahr al-'Ulum.
- Commentary on al-Lum'a ; written by Sayyid Ali b. Abi Shabana Bahrani (d. 1121/1709)
- Commentary on al-Lum'a ; written by Shaykh Sulayman b. Ahmad Al 'Abd al-Jabbar Qatifi (d. 1270/1854)
- Commentary on al-Lum'a ; written by Shaykh Ali b. Husayn Khanqani.
- Commentary on al-Lum'a ; written by Shaykh Ali b. Mahmud Tabasi (d. 1375/1956)
- Commentary on al-Lum'a ; written by Shaykh Mu'izz al-Din Tuni.
- Commentary on al-Lum'a ; written by Mirza Ali b. Muhammad b. Husayn Sultan al-'Ulama Husayni.
- Commentary on al-Lum'a ; written by Aqa Mahdi b. Muhammad Ibrahim Kalbasi (d. 1292/1857)
Al-Lum'a in Verses
- Al-Tuhfat al-Qawamiyya ; written by Sayyid Qawam al-Din, Muhammad b. Muhammad Mahdi al-Sayfi al-Qazwini.
- Al-Hidayat al-Mahdiyya ; written by 'Abd al-Karim Jurjani (alive in 1304/1887)
- Lu'lu' al-Ahkam wa Nukhbat al-Ahkam ; written by Shaykh Ali b. Muhammad Ja'far Shari'atmadar Astarabadi.
- Kanz al-Durr al-Aytam.
Printing and Publishing
Al-Lum'a has been printed many times. Dar al-'Ilm Publication, in Beirut, has printed and published the book along with its commentary in two volumes.
- The material for writing this article has been mainly taken from اللمعة الدمشقیة (کتاب in Farsi wikishia.