References of Ethics
Qur'an • Nahj al-balagha • Misbah al-shari'a wa miftah al-haqiqa • Makarim al-Akhlaq • Al-Mahajja al-bayda' fi tahdhib al-ahya' • Tanbih al-khawatir wa nuzhat al-nawazir • Jami' al-sa'adat • Mi'raj al-sa'ada • Al-Muraqabat
Murāqaba (Arabic: مراقبة) is the observation of human being over his actions, speeches and thoughts to avoid disobedience of divine orders. It is the second stage of the three stages of recommended spiritual conduct (musharata, muraqaba and muhasaba). Scholars of ethics emphasize on muraqaba very much. They refer to verses and hadiths and consider it among the essentials of spiritual conduct.
Muraqaba is the servant's observation of performing actions so that they are not against divine orders. In muraqaba, the servant considers this fact that God the Almighty is aware of the appearance and the heart of his actions and of what he has in the heart. Scholars of ethics emphasize on muraqaba very much and consider it among the essentials of spiritual conduct. Due to muraqaba, a person will acquire a disposition in which having the knowledge in his heart, he continuously observes (being in the presence of) God and is occupied and concerned with Him and knows that he will return to God.
Different levels are mentioned for muraqaba:
2. Intensifying muraqaba and performing any action only for the contentment of God and avoiding dissolute affairs
3. Seeing God as the observant in all the states and admitting the fact that God the Almighty is Omnipresent and Observant over creatures.
4. The highest level of muraqaba is that the wayfarer sees God as the Observant and generally sees the divine beauty.
Some believe that by practicing muraqaba seriously, the wayfarer will discern the unity of God in actions called, the unity of God in attributes, the unity of God in names and the unity of God in essence.
In Verses and Hadiths
The scholars of ethics have mentioned verses and hadiths as proofs for the necessity of muraqaba such as:
- Verse fourteen of the Qur'an 96: Does he not know that Allah sees [him]?
- A hadith from the Prophet (s): Worship God as if you see Him that though you do not see Him, He sees you.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from مراقبه in Farsi WikiShia.