Mushāraṭa (Arabic: مشارطة) is setting out conditions by a person for himself to do good deeds and avoid bad deeds. According to the views of the teachers of ethics, musharata is the first step of the three steps of musharata, muraqaba and muhasaba for personal observation over daily actions.
In musharata, one should set out a condition for himself and decide not to act against God's orders and fully adheres to obedience of God and makes efforts to do good deeds. About musharata, scholars of ethics believe that it is better that every person thinks to himself after fajr prayer for a while, practices musharata and tells himself like a businessman to his business partner, "I don’t have any goods other than my life and if it is lost, my capital is wasted and I’d be disappointed of any business."
In the Qur'an and Hadiths
From the verses of the Qur'an, it can be deduced that the companions of the Prophet (s) had some covenants with God about important issues which were an example of musharata. It is mentioned in Qur'an 33:23, "Among the faithful are men who fulfill what they have pledged to Allah: there are some among them who have fulfilled their pledge, and some of them who still wait, and they have not changed in the least".
In a hadith from the Prophet (s), it is mentioned, "every day, all the limbs of the body warn the tongue and tell it, ‘observe God-wariness about us! Because, if you are correct, we will be correct and if you are wrong, we will go wrong.’"
In supplication 31st of al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya, Imam al-Sajjad (a) states before God, "O God! I have set out a condition [for myself] before You that I do not return to what You do not like, and I guarantee not to return to what you have disapporved and I promise that I keep away from all the sins."
- The material for this article is mainly taken from مشارطه in Farsi WikiShia.